Сина (photographer). Taken Nov. 8, 2009. Tehran Panorama. Flickr. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/sina-r/4082211719/sizes/l/
Structurally, Iran is an extremely complex area and, owing partly to political difficulties and partly to the difficult nature of the terrain itself, complete exploration and investigation have not so far been achieved. In general, Iran consists of an interior plateau, 1,000 m to 1,500 m above sea level, ringed on almost all sides by mountain zones of varying height and extent. The largest mountain massif is that of the Zagros, which runs from the north-west, first south-westwards to the eastern shores of the Persian Gulf, and then eastwards, fronting the Arabian Sea, and continuing into Baluchistan (Pakistan). Joining the Zagros in the north-west, and running along the southern edge of the Caspian Sea, is the narrower but equally high Alborz range; along the eastern frontier of Iran are several scattered mountain chains, less continuous and imposing than either the Zagros or the Alborz, but sufficiently high to act as a barrier.
Bahram Kirmanshahi. end of the 18th century. Portrait of the sovereign Nasir al-Din Shah. painting. Place: Musée du Louvre.
Image courtesy of ARTStor: https://library.artstor.org/asset/ARMNIG_10313258400.
Shirin Ebadi (June 21, 1947- ) is an Iranian lawyer, writer, and activist who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003. She was the first Iranian and the first Muslim woman to win the Peace Prize. She received the award for her efforts to promote democracy and human rights, both in Iran and in other countries. Much of Ebadi's work has focused on freedom of speech and the rights of women and children. Throughout her career, Ebadi has called for a modern interpretation of Islamic law that is consistent with the values of freedom, equality, and democracy. In 1975, she was one of Iran’s first female judges.
"Ebadi, Shirin." World Book Advanced, World Book, 2017, www.worldbookonline.com/advanced/article?id=ar751606. Accessed 21 Sept. 2017.
Image citation: Shirin Ebadi no Fronteiras do Pensamento do Sao Paulo (Sala Sao Paulo). (2011). Retrieved from commons.wikimedia.org on February 12, 2019. Used under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic.
Rumi, Jalal al-Din al (1207-1273) Born in Balkh (in modern Afghanistan) but lived in Qonya, Anatolia (Turkey). Initially followed existing Sufi paths, but became a visionary ecstatic in 1244 after being inspired on a new path of aesthetic and emotional mysticism, which developed into the Mawlawi (Mevlevi) order after his death. Created an aristocratic organizational structure, with hereditary succession and wealthy corporate status. Taught that the Master of the Way was to serve as a medium between God and humanity. Played an important role in Turkish culture and the reconciliation of some Christians to Islam. Sought identification of the human self with divine Being. Famous for humanism, devotion to music, and dhikr exercises incorporating dance where dervishes imitate the order of the universe by spinning in circles around the shaykh like planets revolving around the sun; this gave rise to the European expression “whirling dervishes.” Wrote more than seventy thousand verses of Persian poetry in ordinary language, expressing the experience of God's presence in creation and inspiring joy in the listener; common themes are the trials of separation from the Beloved and the joys of union with Him.
Citation: (2006-01-01). Rumi. In . : . Retrieved 21 Sep. 2017, from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100433148.
The Islamic Republic of Iran lies in western Asia.The Islamic Republic of Iran is bounded on the north by the Caspian Sea, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, on the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, on the south by the Persian (Arabian) Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and on the west by Iraq and Turkey. Iran’s principal crops are wheat, barley, rice, oilseeds, sugar cane, sugar beet and cotton. Iran boasts a large number of archaeological and historical attractions, including Persepolis (dating to 515 bce) in Shiraz. Furthermore, the country hosts some important religious sites—principally the Imam Reza shrine and Goharshad mosque in Mashhad, the Hazrat-e Masumeh shrine in Qom, the Shah Abdul Azim shrine in Tehran, the Shah Cheragh mausoleum in Shiraz and the tomb of the Prophet Daniel in Shush—which attract significant numbers of foreign visitors, particularly Shi‘a Muslims from other Middle East countries such as Kuwait, Bahrain, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia. Tehran is the capital. The principle language is Farsi.
Loris Tjeknavorian was born in 1937 and is will known as an Iranian Armenian composer and conductor. Tjeknavorian composed six operas, 5 symphonies, and numerous smaller works for various instruments and vocals. His most well known piece is Rostam and Sohrab, an opera. Listen to the recordings below to hear Tjeknavorian’s conducting at work.
Viguen (1929-2003) was known as Iran’s “Sultan of Jazz” because he was influenced by Western European and Latin American styles and equated to Elvis Presley.
I usually add 2 tablespoons of barberries (zereshk), similar to dried cranberries, and 2 tablespoons chopped walnuts to this dish.
6 tablespoons oil
4 cups chopped fresh parsley
4 cups chopped scallions, white and green parts
1 cup chopped fresh Chinese parsley
1 cup chopped fresh dill
4 green lettuce leaves, chopped
1 teaspoon baking soda
1 tablespoon flour
3/4 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon pepper
1/2 teaspoon turmeric
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
Per serving: 161 calories, 8 gm protein, 7 gm carbohydrates, 12 gm fat, 186 mg cholesterol, 2 gm saturated fat, 441 mg sodium
Malek, Pari. (1998, March 18). PERSIAN RECIPES THAT KEEP MEMORIES ALIVE.(Food). The Washington Post, p. E01.
Image source: Letternoon
Nikzad Nodjoumi, better known as Nicky Nodjoumi, is an Iranian-American painter. He studied at Tehran University and received his Master’s degree in Fine Arts from the City College of New York in 1974. His paintings confront Iranian politics and history to the point that he was exiled from Iran during the Iranian Revolution. He lives and works in Brooklyn, New York.
Nicky Nodjoumi. 2008. The Target.
Image courtesy of ARTStor: https://library.artstor.org/asset/LARRY_QUALLS_10313558660.
Nicky Nodjoumi. 2009. Pleasure of Hysteria.
Image courtesy of ARTStor: https://library.artstor.org/asset/AWSS35953_35953_35400427.
Nicky Nodjoumi. 2005. Untitled Portrait. Paintings.
Image courtesy of ARTStor: https://library.artstor.org/asset/LARRY_QUALLS_10312609057.
Nicky Nodjoumi. 2008. To Point Out.
Image courtesy of ARTStor: https://library.artstor.org/asset/LARRY_QUALLS_10313558661.
Nicky Nodjoumi. 2002. On the Outside. Paintings.
Image Courtesy of ARTStor: https://library.artstor.org/asset/LARRY_QUALLS_10311782254.