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International Coffeehouses: Brazil

This guide will provide links to resources related to the countries featured in the International Coffeehouses.

Rio de Janeiro Panorama

Panorama picture of Rio de Janeiro

Jean-Marc Astesana (Photographer). (2015). Rio from Sugarloaf Mountain. Retrieved from on March 5, 2019. Used under Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC-BY-SA 2.0).

Brazilian Art & Architecture

Brazil Swissair graphic

Karl Gerstner, (graphic designer), Swissair, (client). Brazil Swissair. Artstor,

Brazilian sculpture

15 Mangueiras Plain sherds. Artstor,

Brazilian headdress

Headdress. Artstor,

Photo of the Church of Our Lady of Carmo

Lisboa, Antônio Francisco, 1730-1814. Ouro Preto, Brazil: Church of Our Lady of Carmo: facade. Artstor,

Picture of Iron Ore Mountain

Brazil: Gen. view of Iron Ore Mountain, 210 miles north of Rio de Janeiro.. Artstor,

Painting entitled autumn left figures

Prendergast, Maurice Brazil, 1858-1924. Autumn left figures. 1910-12. Artstor,

Picture of a carnival and girl wearing a headdress

Carnival: girl w/an elaborate headdress. Artstor,

A picture of a graphic designed for travel

Travel: Best Clothes Going in Brazil. 1973. Artstor,

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Learn Brazilian Portuguese!

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Facts in Brief

Flag of Brazil green background with a yellow diamond and blue circular center

The Federative Republic of Brazil lies in South America. Brazil achieved independence from Portugal in 1822. From 1964 until 1985 Brazil was under military rule. In 1993 voters endorsed the retention of the presidential system. In 1998 Fernando Henrique Cardoso was re-elected for a second presidential term. He was succeeded in 2002 by Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT), who was re-elected in 2006. Da Silva was, in turn, replaced by Dilma Rousseff, also of the PT, at an election in 2010. Rousseff secured a second term in office in 2014, but was impeached and removed from office in 2016. In 2018 the far-right candidate, Jair Bolsonaro, won the presidential election. Brasília is the capital. The official language is Portuguese.

Country Flag (Brazil), in Europa World online. London, Routledge. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Retrieved 05 March 2019 from
Brazil, in Europa World online. London, Routledge. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Retrieved 05 March 2019 from


Writer Adriana Lisboa

Artist Carlito Carvalhosa

A man wearing a short-sleeved button-down


Brazilian Cuisine

Pão de Queijo (Brazilian Cheese Bread)

MAKES 48 (1 1/4-inch) puffs or 24 (2-inch) puffs


  • 1 cup whole milk
  • 1/2 cup vegetable oil
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 10 ounces tapioca flour or sour cassava flour (about 2 cups)
  • 2 large eggs
  • 1 to 1 1/2 cups grated Parmesan cheese
  • Medium saucepan
  • Wooden spoon
  • Standing mixer with paddle attachment (or mixing bowl and elbow grease)
  • baking sheets
  • Parchment paper or silicone baking mats


  1. Heat the oven: Arrange 2 racks to divide the oven into thirds and heat to 450°F. Line 2 baking sheets with parchment paper or silicone baking mats.
  2. Boil the milk and oil: Place the milk, oil, and salt in a medium saucepan and bring to a gentle boil over medium heat, stirring occasionally. Remove from heat as soon as you see big bubbles coming through the milk.
  3. Add the tapioca flour: Add all of the tapioca flour and stir with a wooden spoon until you see no more dry tapioca flour. The dough will be grainy and gelatinous at this point.
  4. Cool the dough: Transfer the dough to the bowl of a standing mixer fitted with a paddle attachment. (Alternatively, you can finish the dough by hand. Be prepared for a work-out.) Beat the dough for a few minutes at medium speed until it smooths out and has cooled enough that you can hold your finger against the dough for several seconds. There may be an oily slick that is not fully incorporated.
  5. Beat in the eggs: With the mixer on medium speed, beat the eggs into the dough one at a time, waiting until the first egg is fully incorporated before adding the second. Scrape down the sides of the bowl as needed.
  6. Beat in the cheese: Beat in the cheese on medium speed until fully incorporated. The resulting dough will be very sticky, stretchy, and soft with a consistency between cake batter and cookie dough. It will not be completely smooth.
  7. Portion the puffs: Have a small bowl of water ready. For small puffs, scoop the dough by level tablespoons onto the baking sheets, spacing them about 1 1/2-inches apart (24 per baking sheet). For larger puffs, scoop the dough with a small (1 ounce or 2 tablespoon) ice cream scoop, spacing them about 2-inches apart (12 per baking sheet). Dip your scoop in water between scoops to prevent sticking.
  8. Bake the puffs: Place the baking sheets in the oven and immediately reduce the heat to 350°F. Bake for 15 minutes. Rotate the baking sheets between racks and from front to back. Bake until the puffs have puffed, the outsides are dry, and they are just starting to turn golden-brown on the bottoms, 10 to 15 minutes more. (The tops will not brown much.) Cool for a few minutes and eat warm.