Official Language: Dutch
Climate: The climate is temperate: the average temperature in January is 3.3°C (38°F), while the average in July is 18.1°C (65°F).
Opera in the Netherlands
The present Kingdom of the Netherlands (familiarly but imprecisely called ‘Holland’) has existed as such since 1830; the region was formerly known as the United Provinces. For social and religious reasons, the country was slow to develop an operatic tradition, in spite of the fact that Amsterdam was an important commercial centre, with a strong music publishing industry which handled much Italian music. An active figure in the late 18th century was Bartholomeus Ruloffs, composer, translator and arranger of many operas, especially from the French opéra comique repertory.
While only sporadic attempts were made to establish Dutch opera in the early 19th century, one example being Johannes Bernardus van Bree’s Saffo (1834), there was keen interest in the latest German developments, and Tannhäuser was seen in Amsterdam before it reached Paris or London. The troupe at the Amsterdam Stadsschouwburg under J. E. de Vries undertook tours throughout the country. After World War I the Concertgebouw Orchestra in Amsterdam played a significant role in operatic life, especially in Wagner productions. The Zuid-Nederlandse Opera was active in the southern provinces until 1971. The company, of which Pierre Audi was appointed artistic director in 1988, is not only the focal point of the nation’s operatic life but also attracts considerable international attention for the quality of its productions.
(3): Location, Climate, Language, Religion, Flag, Capital (The Netherlands), in Europa World online. London, Routledge. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Retrieved 16 February 2022 from http://www.europaworld.com/entry/nl.is.2
(4): Davidson, M. Netherlands, The. Grove Music Online. Retrieved 16 Feb. 2022, from https://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-5000903447.