Official Language: Spanish
Location: The Republic of Ecuador lies on the west coast of South America. It is bordered by Colombia to the north, by Peru to the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Area: 272,045 sq km (105,037 sq miles).
Current Population: 2,723,665
Climate: The climate is tropical at sea level, the Costa being hot and humid, with an average annual temperature of 26°C (78°F).
Money: United States Dollar
Main Religion: Christianity
Citations (3 and 4)
Sanjuanes: often evincing a condensed ballad character, they may be autobiographical, history-recounting or enumerative. The sanjuán, performed in both ritual and non-ritual contexts, is in complex litany form where, notably in performances involving the Imbabura diatonic harp, amidst the regular repetition of a single, primary motif, one new break or secondary motif may be inserted.
Bomba: The dance-song bomba emerged from the culture of the sugar mill, a colonial-era institution introduced to Chota by the Jesuits; the extant bomba Mete caña al trapiche refers to this way of life. The allegro bomba may evince call-and-response texture, repetitive melody, simple duple or sesquialtera metre, bimodal harmony (relative minor/major) and rigorous syncopation.
Tonada: The mestizo dance-song form tonada is waltz-like, in a moderate triple metre and manifests a characteristic Ecuadorian minor- relative major bimodality, with a cadence in the minor dominant.
Pasillo: The unmistakable quality of the deliberate, triple-metre character of the pasillo, and its elegance of expression, its inevitable reference to a (sometimes denied) love of the past, or to some other sadness of the past have been noted by the central highland harpist César Muquinche.
Yaraví: The yaraví, an elegiac vocal form of the northern and southern Andes, dates back to the colonial period and displays moderately slow tempo, triple or multi-metres, binary or rounded binary form and a regular phrase structure.
(2): Country Flag (Ecuador), in Europa World online. London, Routledge. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Retrieved 12 March 2019 from http://www.europaworld.com/entry/ec.FLAG
(3): Ecuador, in Europa World online. London, Routledge. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Retrieved 12 March 2019 from http://www.europaworld.com/entry/ec
(4): Béhague, G., & Schechter, J. (2001). Ecuador. Grove Music Online. Retrieved 27 Mar. 2020, from https://www-oxfordmusiconline-com.proxy.lib.utk.edu/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-0000008534.
(5): Country Map (Ecuador), in Europa World online. London, Routledge. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Retrieved 12 March 2019 from http://www.europaworld.com/entry/ec.MAP