Official Language: Armenian
Area: 29,743 sq km
Population: Current estimate-- 1,084,000
Climate: Winters are cold, the average January temperature in Yerevan being −3°C (26°F), but summers can be very warm, with August temperatures averaging 25°C (77°F).
Religions: Christianity--Armenian Apostolic Church; Russian Orthodox, Islam.
The antiquity of Armenian folk music is attested by monuments of material and spiritual culture, including folksongs. Komitas (1869–1935), a gifted ethnographer, scholar and composer, divided Armenian peasant songs first of all geographically into songs from the mountains, and songs from the plains: the former are relatively harsh in sound, with greater importance given to recitative; the latter are softer, with a predominance of smooth cantilena style. The peasant song is generally monophonic (performed solo or by a unison chorus), but some types are performed antiphonally.
The most interesting work songs are the hȯrovelner (ploughing songs). The words and music of hȯrovelnerare improvised, and these songs consist of a main part, a refrain and many exclamations. Although the purpose is to stimulate work and enliven the ploughmen and the working animals, the singers also express personal feelings. Among the women's work songs in the field, the hoeing songs are outstanding for their supple melodies, which are in mixed metre.
These can be subdivided into those of the calendar cycle, celebrated by everyone, and the ritual episodes of family life. Both generally consist of integral cycles. Among the family ritual songs is the wedding cycle, consisting of over 100 items, which must be sung at specific moments. These songs have many local variants.
Text Citation (2)
(2): Pahlevanian, A., Kerovpyan, A., & Sarkisyan, S. (2001). Armenia, Republic of. Grove Music Online. Retrieved 9 Feb. 2021, from https://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/grovemusic/view/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.001.0001/omo-9781561592630-e-0000042078.
(3): London, Routledge. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Retrieved 20 September 2018 from http://www.europaworld.com/entry/am.MAP
(4): London, Routledge. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Retrieved 20 September 2018 from http://www.europaworld.com/entry/am.FLAG