Official Language: Portuguese
Location: The Federative Republic of Brazil is the largest country in Latin America, occupying much of the east of South America. Nearly one-half of the continent is in Brazil.
Area: Brazil covers an area of 8,514,877 sq km (3,287,611 sq miles)
Current Population: Current estimate - 211.6m
Climate: Average monthly temperatures range from 23.9°C (75.0°F) in July to 26.5°C (79.7°F) in October.
The folk and traditional music of Brazil has been studied from various angles since the beginning of the 20th century; however, although the collecting of substantial folk and popular music repertories has improved during the last four decades of the 20th century, it remains limited. Brazilian folk music reflects its varied cultural origins.
Since the country was colonized by the Portuguese, Luso-Hispanic folk music constitutes the basis of Brazilian folk music. Portuguese material has, in most cases, undergone essential modifications throughout Brazilian history but certain stylistic characteristics, such as Iberian folk polyphony, have been retained. Portuguese melodies, especially in children's songs, can still be found.
Specific scales frequent in Brazilian folk music have been attributed to an African origin: pentatonic scales, major diatonic with a flattened seventh and major hexatonic without the seventh degree. African rhythmic traits, such as the hemiola rhythm, form the basis of many rhythmic intricacies of Brazilian folk music. African rhythmic traits, such as the hemiola rhythm, form the basis of many rhythmic intricacies of Brazilian folk music. While not as sophisticated as its African counterpart, drum music among Afro-Brazilians exhibits similar complexity.
The third major ethnic group that contributed to the early formation of Brazilian folk music is the Amerindian group. Vestiges of this music in the main folk traditions of Brazil can at best be revealed through the retention of certain types of instruments, mainly rattles of the maraca type, certain choreographic genres and performance characteristics.
(2): Country Flag (Brazil), in Europa World online. London, Routledge. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Retrieved 7 June 2022 from http://www.europaworld.com/entry/br.FLAG
(3): Country Map (Brazil), in Europa World online. London, Routledge. University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Retrieved 25 March 2021 from http://www.europaworld.com/entry/br.MAP