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Smarter government : how to govern for results in the information age by Stephen Goldsmith (Foreword by); Martin O'MalleyThis is the new way of governing. The time has come for the rise of the tech savvy executive: an individual who innately understands the need to help the use of technology rise at the same level across the entire organization. In Baltimore and in Maryland, Governor Martin O'Malley has done all of these things and more. Smarter Government: Governing for Results in the Information Age is about a more effective way to lead that is emerging, enabled by the Information Age. It provides real solutions to real problems using GIS technology and helps develop a management strategy using data that will profoundly change an organization. Browse galleries, exercises, and resources supporting this book's ideas and concepts: https://www.smartergovernment.com
Bayesian disease mapping : hierarchical modeling in spatial epidemiology by Andrew B. LawsonSince the publication of the second edition, many new Bayesian tools and methods have been developed for space-time data analysis, the predictive modeling of health outcomes, and other spatial biostatistical areas. Exploring these new developments, Bayesian Disease Mapping: Hierarchical Modeling in Spatial Epidemiology, Third Edition provides an up-to-date, cohesive account of the full range of Bayesian disease mapping methods and applications. In addition to the new material, the book also covers more conventional areas such as relative risk estimation, clustering, spatial survival analysis, and longitudinal analysis. After an introduction to Bayesian inference, computation, and model assessment, the text focuses on important themes, including disease map reconstruction, cluster detection, regression and ecological analysis, putative hazard modeling, analysis of multiple scales and multiple diseases, spatial survival and longitudinal studies, spatiotemporal methods, and map surveillance. It shows how Bayesian disease mapping can yield significant insights into georeferenced health data. The target audience for this text is public health specialists, epidemiologists, and biostatisticians who need to work with geo-referenced health data.
Cartographies of disease : maps, mapping, and medicine by Tom KochCartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine, new expanded edition, is a comprehensive survey of the technology of mapping and its relationship to the battle against disease. This look at medical mapping advances the argument that maps are not merely representations of spatial realities but a way of thinking about relationships between viral and bacterial communities, human hosts, and the environments in which diseases flourish. Cartographies of Disease traces the history of medical mapping from its growth in the 19th century during an era of trade and immigration to its renaissance in the 1990s during a new era of globalization. Referencing maps older than John Snow's famous cholera maps of London in the mid-19th century, this survey pulls from the plague maps of the 1600s, while addressing current issues concerning the ability of GIS technology to track diseases worldwide. The original chapters have some minor updating, and two new chapters have been added. Chapter 13 attempts to understand how the hundreds of maps of Ebola revealed not simply disease incidence but the way in which the epidemic itself was perceived. Chapter 14 is about the spatiality of the disease and the means by which different cartographic approaches may affect how infectious outbreaks like ebola can be confronted and contained.
Pandemic : tracking contagions, from cholera to Ebola and beyond by Sonia ShahScientists agree that a pathogen is likely to cause a global pandemic in the near future. But which one? And how? Over the past fifty years, more than three hundred infectious diseases have either newly emerged or reemerged, appearing in territories where they've never been seen before. Ninety percent of epidemiologists expect that one of them will cause a deadly pandemic sometime in the next two generations. It could be Ebola, avian flu, a drug-resistant superbug, or something completely new. While we can't know which pathogen will cause the next pandemic, by unraveling the story of how pathogens have caused pandemics in the past, we can make predictions about the future. InPandemic: Tracking Contagions, fromCholera to Ebola and Beyond, the prizewinning journalist Sonia Shah--whose book on malaria,The Fever, was called a "tour-de-force history" (The New York Times) and "revelatory" (The NewRepublic)--interweaves history, original reportage, and personal narrative to explore the origins of contagions, drawing parallels between cholera, one of history's most deadly and disruptive pandemic-causing pathogens, and the new diseases that stalk humankind today. To reveal how a new pandemic might develop, Sonia Shah tracks each stage of cholera's dramatic journey, from its emergence in the South Asian hinterlands as a harmless microbe to its rapid dispersal across the nineteenth-century world, all the way to its latest beachhead in Haiti. Along the way she reports on the pathogens now following in cholera's footsteps, from the MRSA bacterium that besieges her own family to the never-before-seen killers coming out of China's wet markets, the surgical wards of New Delhi, and the suburban backyards of the East Coast. By delving into the convoluted science, strange politics, and checkered history of one of the world's deadliest diseases,Pandemicreveals what the next global contagion might look like-- and what we can do to prevent it.
Handbook of Spatial Epidemiology by Andrew B. Lawson (Editor); Sudipto Banerjee (Editor); Robert P. Haining (Editor); María Dolores Ugarte (Editor)Handbook of Spatial Epidemiology explains how to model epidemiological problems and improve inference about disease etiology from a geographical perspective. Top epidemiologists, geographers, and statisticians share interdisciplinary viewpoints on analyzing spatial data and space¿time variations in disease incidences. These analyses can provide important information that leads to better decision making in public health. The first part of the book addresses general issues related to epidemiology, GIS, environmental studies, clustering, and ecological analysis. The second part presents basic statistical methods used in spatial epidemiology, including fundamental likelihood principles, Bayesian methods, and testing and nonparametric approaches. With a focus on special methods, the third part describes geostatistical models, splines, quantile regression, focused clustering, mixtures, multivariate methods, and much more. The final part examines special problems and application areas, such as residential history analysis, segregation, health services research, health surveys, infectious disease, veterinary topics, and health surveillance and clustering. Spatial epidemiology, also known as disease mapping, studies the geographical or spatial distribution of health outcomes. This handbook offers a wide-ranging overview of state-of-the-art approaches to determine the relationships between health and various risk factors, empowering researchers and policy makers to tackle public health problems.
The Tobacco Atlas by Michael Eriksen; Judith Mackay; Neil SchlugerFirst published in 2002, this updated work uses maps, charts, and graphs to present data from the World Health Organization's working groups that deal with tobacco. Statistics and information on tobacco's harmful effects, the types of tobacco products used, tobacco production, tobacco use, the influence of the tobacco industry, and the success of health-education projects are all included. A glossary, a history of tobacco, and a bibliography round out the volume.
GIS Tutorial for Health by Kristen S. Kurland; Wilpen L. GorrA handbook for teaching GIS to healthcare professionals, this reference discusses learning GIS software in the context of visualizing and analyzing health-related data. By outlining a hands-on approach that simulates how a GIS project would be developed in the real world, the included exercises set the student loose on real data with a tangible, clearly-defined end-product as the goal. A companion CD-ROM includes additional exercises for each tutorial chapter with integrated cases that cut across chapters.
Disease maps : epidemics on the ground by Tom KochIn the seventeenth century, a map of the plague suggested a radical idea--that the disease was carried and spread by humans. In the nineteenth century, maps of cholera cases were used to prove its waterborne nature. More recently, maps charting the swine flu pandemic caused worldwide panic and sent shockwaves through the medical community. In Disease Maps, Tom Koch contends that to understand epidemics and their history we need to think about maps of varying scale, from the individual body to shared symptoms evidenced across cities, nations, and the world. Disease Maps begins with a brief review of epidemic mapping today and a detailed example of its power. Koch then traces the early history of medical cartography, including pandemics such as European plague and yellow fever, and the advancements in anatomy, printing, and world atlases that paved the way for their mapping. Moving on to the scourge of the nineteenth century--cholera--Koch considers the many choleras argued into existence by the maps of the day, including a new perspective on John Snow's science and legacy. Finally, Koch addresses contemporary outbreaks such as AIDS, cancer, and H1N1, and reaches into the future, toward the coming epidemics. Ultimately, Disease Maps redefines conventional medical history with new surgical precision, revealing that only in maps do patterns emerge that allow disease theories to be proposed, hypotheses tested, and treatments advanced.
Spatial Epidemiological Approaches in Disease Mapping and Analysis by Poh Chin Lai; Chan Ka Wing; Fun Mun So; Chan Ka Wing; Poh C. Lai; Ka Wing ChanContaining method descriptions and step-by-step procedures, the Spatial Epidemiological Approaches in Disease Mapping and Analysis equips readers with skills to prepare health-related data in the proper format, process these data using relevant functions and software, and display the results as mapped or statistical summaries. Describing the wide range of available methods and key GIS concepts for spatial epidemiology, this book illustrates the utilities of the software using real-world data. Additional topics include geographic data models, address matching, geostatistical analysis, universal kriging, point pattern analysis, kernel density, spatio-temporal display, and disease surveillance.
Spatial Analysis in Epidemiology by Dirk U. Pfeiffer (Editor); Timothy P. Robinson (Editor); Mark Stevenson; Kim B. Stevens; David J. Rogers; Archie C. A. ClementsThis book provides a practical, comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the use of spatial statistics in epidemiology - the study of the incidence and distribution of diseases. Used appropriately, spatial analytical methods in conjunction with GIS and remotely sensed data can providesignificant insights into the biological patterns and processes that underlie disease transmission. In turn, these can be used to understand and predict disease prevalence. This user-friendly text brings together the specialised and widely-dispersed literature on spatial analysis to make thesemethodological tools accessible to epidemiologists for the first time.With its focus is on application rather than theory, iSpatial Analysis in Epidemiology/i includes a wide range of examples taken from both medical (human) and veterinary (animal) disciplines, and describes both infectious diseases and non-infectious conditions. Furthermore, it provides workedexamples of methodologies using a single data set from the same disease example throughout, and is structured to follow the logical sequence of description of spatial data, visualisation, exploration, modelling and decision support. This accessible text is aimed at graduate students and researchersdealing with spatial data in the fields of epidemiology (both medical and veterinary), ecology, zoology and parasitology, environmental science, geography and statistics.
Geocoding health data : the use of geographic codes in cancer prevention and control, research, and practice by Marc P. Armstrong; Josephine Gittler (Editor); Barry R. Greene (Editor); Claire E. Pavlik (Editor); Gerard Rushton (Editor)In the past, disease pattern mapping depended on census tracts based on political units, such as states and counties. However, with the advent of geographic information systems (GIS), researchers can now achieve a new level of precision and flexibility in geographic locating. This emerging technology allows the mapping of many different kinds of geographies, including disease rates in relation to pollution sources. Geocoding Health Data presents a state-of-the-art discussion on the current technical and administrative developments in geographic information science. In particular, it discusses how geocoded residential addresses can be used to examine the spatial patterns of cancer incidence, staging, survival, and mortality. The book begins with an introduction of various codes and their uses, including census geographic, health area, and street level codes. It goes on to describe the specific application of geocodes to cancer, detailing methods, materials, and technical issues. The text illustrates how to compile data maps for analysis and addresses issues, such as mismatch correction and data quality. It describes the current state of geocoding practices and discusses the use of individually geocoded cancer incidences in spatial epidemiology, distance estimation and spatial accessibilities, and tips for handling non-geocoded cases. Special consideration is given to privacy and confidentiality issues by focusing on disclosure limitation methods. With recent disease outbreaks and escalating concerns about bioterrorism, interest in the application of GIS to individual data is growing. The fundamental concepts presented by this book are of great value to anyone trying to understand the causes, prevention, and control of cancer as well as a variety of other diseases.
The strange case of the Broad Street pump : John Snow and the mystery of cholera by Sandra HempelIn 1831, an unknown, horrifying, and deadly disease from Asia swept across continental Europe and North America, killing millions and throwing the medical profession into confusion. A killer with little respect for class or wealth, cholera ravaged the squalid streets of Soho and rocked the great centers of Victorian power. In this gripping book, Sandra Hempel tells the story of John Snow, a reclusive doctor without money or social position, who--alone and unrecognized--had the genius to look beyond the conventional wisdom of his day and uncover the truth behind the pandemic. She describes how Snow discovered that cholera was spread through drinking water and how this subsequently laid the foundations for the modern, scientific investigation of today's fatal plagues. A dramatic account with a colorful cast of characters, The Strange Case of the Broad Street Pump features diversions into fascinating facets of medical and social history, such as Snow's tending of Queen Victoria in childbirth, Dutch microbiologist Leeuwenhoek's deliberate breeding of lice in his socks, Dickensian children's farms, and riotous nineteenth-century anesthesia parties. An afterword discusses the new threat of infectious diseases--including malaria, yellow fever, and cholera--with today's global warming. Copub: Granta
Statistical Methods in Spatial Epidemiology by Andrew B. LawsonSpatial epidemiology is the description and analysis of thegeographical distribution of disease. It is more important now thanever, with modern threats such as bio-terrorism making suchanalysis even more complex. This second edition of StatisticalMethods in Spatial Epidemiology is updated and expanded tooffer a complete coverage of the analysis and application ofspatial statistical methods. The book is divided into two mainsections: Part 1 introduces basic definitions and terminology,along with map construction and some basic models. This is expandedupon in Part II by applying this knowledge to the fundamentalproblems within spatial epidemiology, such as diseasemapping, ecological analysis, disease clustering,bio-terrorism, space-time analysis,surveillance and infectious disease modelling. Provides a comprehensive overview of the main statisticalmethods used in spatial epidemiology. Updated to include a new emphasis on bio-terrorism and diseasesurveillance. Emphasizes the importance of space-time modelling and outlinesthe practical application of the method. Discusses the wide range of software available for analyzingspatial data, including WinBUGS, SaTScan and R, and features anaccompanying website hosting related software. Contains numerous data sets, each representing a differentapproach to the analysis, and provides an insight into variousmodelling techniques. This text is primarily aimed at medical statisticians,researchers and practitioners from public health and epidemiology.It is also suitable for postgraduate students of statistics andepidemiology, as well professionals working in governmentagencies.
World Atlas of Epidemic Diseases by Matthew Smallman-Raynor; Andrew Cliff; Peter HaggettThe euphoria about the defeat of epidemics which surrounded the global eradication of smallpox in the 1970s proved short-lived. The advent of AIDS in the following decade, the widening spectrum of other newly-emergent diseases (from Ebola to Hanta virus), and the resurgence of old diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria all suggest that the threat of epidemic diseases remains at an historic high. The World Atlas of Epidemic Diseases provides a timely and scholarly review of over fifty of the most important such diseases at the start of the twenty-first century. This stunningly presented collection of maps, illustrations and commentary offers an authoritative overview of the global distribution of major epidemic diseases on a variety of spatial scales from the local to the global. The Atlas is arranged in an historical sequence, beginning with classic plagues such as the 'Black Death' and cholera and moving on through smallpox and measles to 'modern' diseases such as AIDS and Legionnaires' disease. Over 400 figures are incorporated, including 150 specially drawn maps supported by micrographs of the causative agents, photographs of the disease vectors, historical prints and graphs of changing incidence. The text for each disease includes discussion of its nature and epidemiological features, its origin (where known) and historical impacts, and its global status at the start of the twenty-first century. The book concludes with an informed look towards the future, assessing the probable impacts of major medical advances on life expectancy and the chances of success of programmes for the global eradication of diseases such as polio and measles. The World Atlas of Epidemic Diseases makes a major new contribution to our knowledge of the global burden of disease and is an informative and fascinating reference on the changing distributions of disease. It will be an invaluable resource for anyone interested in the spread, control and eradication of epidemic disease.
Modelling spatial and spatial-temporal data : a Bayesian approach by Robert P. Haining; Guangquan LiModelling Spatial and Spatial-Temporal Data: A Bayesian Approach is aimed at statisticians and quantitative social, economic and public health students and researchers who work with spatial and spatial-temporal data. It assumes a grounding in statistical theory up to the standard linear regression model. The book compares both hierarchical and spatial econometric modelling, providing both a reference and a teaching text with exercises in each chapter. The book provides a fully Bayesian, self-contained, treatment of the underlying statistical theory, with chapters dedicated to substantive applications. The book includes WinBUGS code and R code and all datasets are available online. Part I covers fundamental issues arising when modelling spatial and spatial-temporal data. Part II focuses on modelling cross-sectional spatial data and begins by describing exploratory methods that help guide the modelling process. There are then two theoretical chapters on Bayesian models and a chapter of applications. Two chapters follow on spatial econometric modelling, one describing different models, the other substantive applications. Part III discusses modelling spatial-temporal data, first introducing models for time series data. Exploratory methods for detecting different types of space-time interaction are presented followed by two chapters on the theory of space-time separable (without space-time interaction) and inseparable (with space-time interaction) models. An applications chapter includes: the evaluation of a policy intervention; analysing the temporal dynamics of crime hotspots; chronic disease surveillance; and testing for evidence of spatial spillovers in the spread of an infectious disease. A final chapter suggests some future directions and challenges.
Publication Date: 2020-01-27
Epidemiology and geography : principles, methods and tools of spatial analysis by Marc SourisLocalization is involved everywhere in epidemiology: health phenomena often involve spatial relationships among individuals and risk factors related to geography and environment. Therefore, the use of localization in the analysis and comprehension of health phenomena is essential. This book describes the objectives, principles, methods and tools of spatial analysis and geographic information systems applied to the field of health, and more specifically to the study of the spatial distribution of disease and health-environment relationships. It is a practical introduction to spatial and spatio-temporal analysis for epidemiology and health geography, and takes an educational approach illustrated with real-world examples. Epidemiology and Geography presents a complete and straightforward overview of the use of spatial analysis in epidemiology for students, public health professionals, epidemiologists, health geographers and specialists in health-environment studies.
Publication Date: 2019-05-21
Women and GIS : mapping their stories by ESRI Press EditorsTwenty-three stories about how ordinary girls with very different passions have become extraordinary women and made significant contributions to our world Women look to other women as role models and for inspiration. Seeing confidence, leadership and accomplishments in other women helps a young woman envision herself with those qualities. Women and GIS: Mapping Their Stories tells the tales of how 23 women applied themselves and overcame obstacles, using maps, analysis, and geographic information systems (GIS) to contribute to their professions and the world. Sharing the experiences of their childhoods, the misstarts and challenges they faced, and the lessons they learned, each story is a celebration of a woman's unique path and of the perseverance and hard work it takes to achieve success. From oceanographers to activists, archaeologists to entrepreneurs, the women in Women and GIS: Mapping Their Stories can serve as mentors to motivate readers who are developing their own life stories and inspire their potential in a new way.
Publication Date: 2019-06-04
Geographies of Plague Pandemics The Spatial Temporal Behaviour of Plague to the Modern Day by Mark WelfordGeographies of Plague Pandemics synthesizes our current understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of plague, Yersinia pestis. The environmental, political, economic, and social impacts of the plague from Ancient Greece to the modern day are examined. Chapters explore the identity of plague DNA, its human mortality, and the source of ancient and modern plagues. This book also discusses the role plague has played in shifting power from Mediterranean Europe to north-western Europe during the 500 years that plague has raged across the continent. The book demonstrates how recent colonial structures influenced the spread and mortality of plague while changing colonial histories. In addition, this book provides critical insight into how plague has shaped modern medicine, public health, and disease monitoring, and what role, if any, it might play as a terror weapon. The scope and breadth of Geographies of Plague Pandemics offers geographers, historians, biologists, and public health educators the opportunity to explore the deep connections among disease and human existence.
Publication Date: 2018
Routledge handbook of health geography by Valorie A. Crooks (Editor); Gavin J. Andrews (Editor); Jamie Pearce (Editor)The places of our daily life affect our health, well-being, and receipt of health care in complex ways. The connection between health and place has been acknowledged for centuries, and the contemporary discipline of health geography sets as its core mission to uncover and explicate all facets of this connection. The Routledge Handbook of Health Geography features 52 chapters from leading international thinkers that collectively characterize the breadth and depth of current thinking on the health¿place connection. It will be of interest to students seeking an introduction to health geography as well as multidisciplinary health scholars looking to explore the intersection between health and place. This book provides a coherent synthesis of scholarship in health geography as well as multidisciplinary insights into cutting-edge research. It explores the key concepts central to appreciating the ways in which place influences our health, from the micro-space of the body to the macro-scale of entire world regions, in order to articulate historical and contemporary aspects of this influence.
Publication Date: 2018-06-21
Mapping AIDS : visual histories of an enduring epidemic by Lukas EngelmannIn this innovative study, Lukas Engelmann examines visual traditions in modern medical history through debates about the causes, impact and spread of AIDS. Utilising medical AIDS atlases produced between 1986 and 2008 for a global audience, Engelmann argues that these visual textbooks played a significant part in the establishment of AIDS as a medical phenomenon. However, the visualisations risked obscuring the social, cultural and political complexity of AIDS history. Photographs of patients were among the earliest responses to the mysterious syndrome, cropped and framed to deliver a visible characterisation of AIDS to a medical audience. Maps then offered an abstracted image of the regions invaded by the epidemic, while the icon of the virus aspired to capture the essence of AIDS. The epidemic's history is retold through clinical photographs, epidemiological maps and icons of HIV, asking how this devastating epidemic has come to be seen as a controllable chronic condition.
Publication Date: 2018-11-08
The atlas of disease : mapping deadly epidemics and contagion from the plague to the zika virus by Sandra HempelBehind every disease is a story, a complex narrative woven of multiple threads, from the natural history of the disease, to the tale of its discovery and its place in history. But what is vital in all of this is how the disease spreads and develops. In The Atlas of Disease, Sandra Hemple reveals how maps have uncovered insightful information about the history of disease, from the seventeenth century plague maps that revealed the radical idea that diseases might be carried and spread by humans, to cholera maps in the 1800s showing the disease was carried by water, right up to the AIDs epidemic in the 1980s and the recent Ebola outbreak. Crucially, The Atlas of Disease will also explore how cartographic techniques have been used to combat epidemics by revealing previously hidden patterns. These discoveries have changed the course of history, affected human evolution, stimulated advances in medicine and shaped the course of countless lives.
Publication Date: 2018-11-27
Infectious Diseases : A Geographic Guide by Eskild Petersen (Editor); Lin Hwei Chen (Editor); Patricia Schlagenhauf-Lawlor (Editor)The second edition of this concise and practical guide describes infections in geographical areas and provides information on disease risk, concomitant infections (such as co-prevalence of HIV and tuberculosis) and emerging bacterial, viral and parasitic infections in a given geographical area of the world. Geographic approach means that its the only book to guide the health care worker towards a diagnosis based on the location of symptoms and travel history by encouraging the question where have you been? New content covering MERS, Ebola, Zika, and infections transmitted during air and maritime travel Covers the major infectious disease outbreaks framed in their geographic setting such as H7N9 bird flu influenza, H1N1, Ebola, and Zika Outstanding international editor team with vast experience on various international infectious disease and as journal editors and key leaders in infection surveillance
Publication Date: 2017-02-21
Practicing qualitative methods in health geographies by Nancy E. FentonHealth geographers are increasingly turning to a diverse range of interpretative methodologies to explore the complexities of health, illness, space and place to gain more comprehensive understandings of well-being and broader social models of health and health care. Drawing upon postmodernism, many health geographers are concerned with issues of representation, the body and health care policy. Also related to an emphasis on the body is the growing literature in feminist health geography that investigates the metaphorical, physical and emotional challenges of the body and disease.
Reflecting these interests, the chapters in this book set out the host of creative qualitative methods being used to explore the psychosocial experiences of individuals more directly, using such traditional methods as in-depth interviews and group discussions, participant observation, diaries and discourse analysis, but also more novel techniques such as 'go-along interviews’, reflexive writing, illustrations, and photographic techniques. There are several areas of qualitative research unique to geographers which figure prominently in this volume including: health and place, comparative case study analysis, and qualitative approaches to the use of geographic information systems (GIS). This collection brings together a wide range of empirical concerns related to questions of health and shines a light on the diversity of qualitative methods in practice. Illustrating how qualitative methodologies are used in diverse health contexts this book fills an important niche for health geographers but will have wide appeal to health and geographic researchers.
Publication Date: 2016
Spatial agent-based simulation modeling in public health : design, implementation, and applications for malaria epidemiology by S. M. Niaz Arifin; Gregory R. Madey; Frank H. CollinsPresents an overview of the complex biological systems used within a global public health setting and features a focus on malaria analysis Bridging the gap between agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) and geographic information systems (GIS), Spatial Agent-Based Simulation Modeling in Public Health: Design, Implementation, and Applications for Malaria Epidemiology provides a useful introduction to the development of agent-based models (ABMs) by following a conceptual and biological core model of Anopheles gambiae for malaria epidemiology. Using spatial ABMs, the book includes mosquito (vector) control interventions and GIS as two example applications of ABMs, as well as a brief description of epidemiology modeling. In addition, the authors discuss how to most effectively integrate spatial ABMs with a GIS. The book concludes with a combination of knowledge from entomological, epidemiological, simulation-based, and geo-spatial domains in order to identify and analyze relationships between various transmission variables of the disease. Spatial Agent-Based Simulation Modeling in Public Health: Design, Implementation, and Applications for Malaria Epidemiology also features: Location-specific mosquito abundance maps that play an important role in malaria control activities by guiding future resource allocation for malaria control and identifying hotspots for further investigation Discussions on the best modeling practices in an effort to achieve improved efficacy, cost-effectiveness, ecological soundness, and sustainability of vector control for malaria An overview of the various ABMs, GIS, and spatial statistical methods used in entomological and epidemiological studies, as well as the model malaria study A companion website with computer source code and flowcharts of the spatial ABM and a landscape generator tool that can simulate landscapes with varying spatial heterogeneity of different types of resources including aquatic habitats and houses Spatial Agent-Based Simulation Modeling in Public Health: Design, Implementation, and Applications for Malaria Epidemiology is an excellent reference for professionals such as modeling and simulation experts, GIS experts, spatial analysts, mathematicians, statisticians, epidemiologists, health policy makers, as well as researchers and scientists who use, manage, or analyze infectious disease data and/or infectious disease-related projects. The book is also ideal for graduate-level courses in modeling and simulation, bioinformatics, biostatistics, public health and policy, and epidemiology.
Publication Date: 2016-03-29
The Atlas of Global Inequalities by Ben Crow; Suresh K. LodhaDrawing on research from around the world, this atlas gives shape and meaning to statistics, making it an indispensable resource for understanding global inequalities and an inspiration for social and political action. Inequality underlies many of the challenges facing the world today, and The Atlas of Global Inequalities considers the issue in all its dimensions. Organized in thematic parts, it maps not only the global distribution of income and wealth, but also inequalities in social and political rights and freedoms. It describes how inadequate health services, unsafe water, and barriers to education hinder people's ability to live their lives to the full; assesses poor transport, energy, and digital communication infrastructures and their effect on economic development; and highlights the dangers of unclean and unhealthy indoor and outdoor environments. Through world, regional, and country maps, and innovative and intriguing graphics, the authors unravel the complexity of inequality, revealing differences between countries as well as illustrating inequalities within them. Topics include: the discrimination suffered by children with a disability; the impact of inefficient and dangerous household fuels on the daily lives and long-term health of those who rely on them; the unequal opportunities available to women; and the reasons for families' descent into, and reemergence from, poverty.
Publication Date: 2016-05-04
Population health intervention research : geographical perspectives by Daniel W. Harrington (Editor); Sara McLafferty (Editor); Susan J. Elliott (Editor)Health geographers are well situated for undertaking population health intervention research (PHIR), and have an opportunity to be at the forefront of this emerging area of inquiry. However, in order to advance PHIR, the scientific community needs to be innovative with its methodologies, theories, and ability to think critically about population health issues. For example, using alternatives (e.g. community-based participatory research) to traditional study designs such as the randomised control trial, health geographers can contribute in important ways to understanding the complex relationships between population health (both intended and unintended consequences), interventions and place. Representing a diverse array of health concerns ranging across chronic and infectious diseases, and research employing varied qualitative and quantitative methodologies, the contributions to this book illustrate how geographic concepts and approaches have informed the design and planning of intervention(s) and/or the evaluation of health impacts. For example, the authors argue that geographically targeting interventions to places of high-need and tailoring interventions to local place contexts are critically important for intervention success. Including an afterword by Professor Louise Potvin, this book will appeal to researchers interested in population and public/community health and epidemiology as well as health geography.
Publication Date: 2016-07-22
GIS tutorial for health by Kristen Seamens KurlandA handbook for teaching GIS to healthcare professionals, this reference discusses learning GIS software in the context of visualizing and analyzing health-related data. By outlining a hands-on approach that simulates how a GIS project would be developed in the real world, the included exercises set the student loose on real data with a tangible, clearly-defined end-product as the goal. A companion CD-ROM includes additional exercises for each tutorial chapter with integrated cases that cut across chapters.
Publication Date: 2014
Geographies of health : an introduction by Anthony C. Gatrell; Susan J. ElliottSetting out the debates and reviewing the evidence that links health outcomes with social and physical environments, this new edition of the well-established text offers an accessible overview of the theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and research in the field of health geography Includes international examples, drawn from a broad range of countries, and extensive illustrations Unique in its approach to health geography, as opposed to medical geography New chapters focus on contemporary concerns including neighborhoods and health, ageing, and emerging infectious disease Offers five new case studies and an fresh emphasis on qualitative research approaches Written by two of the leading health geographers in the world, each with extensive experience in research and policy
Publication Date: 2014-10-15
Health, Science, and Place : A New Model by Amy J. BlattThe main focus of this monograph is synthesizing the importance of geographic approaches to public health and patient care. The chapters are organized into four themed sections: the role of geography in health care reform; the geographies of human health; geospatial data and technologies; and geography in medicine. It is a highly informative book, providing scientific insight for geographers with an interest in advanced geospatial applications and health research. The author is an international expert in geography, GIS, and public health, who co-edited a special issue on "Geospatial Applications in Disease Surveillance," published in the International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research. "Health, Science, and Place is a well-intentioned overview of medical geography in the context of the ACA. Blatt does an excellent job synthesizing ecologic and geographic literatures with what we know about individual health, health care systems, and public health. ... this book fills a need in the field by offering a timely discussion of the ACA and medical geography." - Jennifer L. Moss, The AAG Review of Books, Vol. 4 (2), 2016 "Amy Blatt's pioneering new book on geomedicine and its exciting capacity to promote health and minimize risk is a robust call for understanding the role of geography for everyone's quality of life. In Health, Science, and Place: A New Mode, Dr. Blatt's contributions can be summarized in three categories: comprehensive analysis, creative curating, and targeted innovations... Overall, Dr. Blatt's Health, Science, and Place: A New Model is a pathbreaking book challenging all public health and health communication scholars and practitioners to explore vigorously the role of medical geography as a shining new bridge between geography and patient care." - John C. Pollock, PhD, MPA, Professor of Health Communication and Human Rights, and Faculty Affiliate in Public Health, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ
Publication Date: 2014-11-21
Mapping Disease Transmission Risk : Enriching Models Using Biogeography and Ecology by A. Townsend PetersonA. Townsend Peterson, one of the pioneers of ecological niche modeling, presents a synthesis that illuminates new and more effective infectious disease mapping methods. His work--the culmination of twelve years of refinement--breaks new ground by integrating biogeographic and ecological factors with spatial models. Aimed at seasoned epidemiologists and public health experts, this interdisciplinary book explains the conceptual and technical underpinnings of Peterson's approach while simultaneously describing the potentially enormous benefits of his modeling method. Peterson treats disease transmission areas for what they are--distributions of species. The book argues that complex, fragmented, and highly irregular disease patterns can only be understood when underlying environmental drivers are considered. The result is an elegant modeling approach that challenges static spatial models and provides a framework for recasting disease mapping. Anyone working in the area of disease transmission, particularly those employing predictive maps, will find Peterson's book both inspiring and indispensable.
Publication Date: 2014-11-26
Essentials of Medical Geology by Olle Selinus (Editor); Brian Alloway (Other Adaptation by); Jose Centeno (Other Adaptation by); Robert Finkelman (Other Adaptation by); Ron Fuge (Other Adaptation by); Ulf Lindh (Other Adaptation by); Pauline Smedley (Other Adaptation by)Essentials of Medical Geology reviews the essential concepts and practical tools required to tackle environmental and public health problems. It is organized into four main sections. The first section deals with the fundamentals of environmental biology, the natural and anthropogenic sources of health elements that impact health and illustrate key biogeochemical transformations. The second section looks at the geological processes influencing human exposure to specific elements, such as radon, arsenic, fluorine, selenium and iodine. The third section presents the concepts and techniques of pathology, toxicology and epidemiology that underpin investigations into the human health effects of exposure to naturally occurring elements. The last section provides a toolbox of analytical approaches to environmental research and medical geology investigations. Essentials of Medical Geology was first published in 2005 and has since won three prestigious rewards. The book has been recognized as a key book in both medical and geology fields and is widely used as textbook and reference book in these fields. For this revised edition, editors and authors have updated the content that evolved a lot during 2005 and added two new chapters, on public health, and agriculture and health. This updated volume can now continue to be used as a textbook and reference book for all who are interested in this important topic and its impacts the health and wellbeing of many millions of people all over the world. · Addresses key topics at the intersection of environmental science and human health · Developed by 60 international experts from 20 countries and edited by professionals from the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA) · Written in non-technical language for a broad spectrum of readers, ranging from students and professional researchers to policymakers and the general public · Includes color illustrations throughout, references for further investigation and other aids to the reader
Geographic health data : fundamental techniques for analysis by Francis P. Boscoe (Editor)Focussing on proven techniques for most real-world data sets, this book presents an overview of the analysis of health data involving a geographic component, in a way that is accessible to any health scientist or student comfortable with large data sets and basic statistics, but not necessarily with any specialized training in geographic information systems (GIS). Providing clear, straightforward explanations with worldwide examples and solutions, the book describes applications of GIS in disaster response.
Publication Date: 2013-10-21
Atlas of human infectious diseases by Heiman F. L WertheimThe Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases provides a much needed practical and visual overview of the current distribution and determinants of major infectious diseases of humans. The comprehensive full-color maps show at a glance the areas with reported infections and outbreaks, and are accompanied by a concise summary of key information on the infectious agent and its clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Since infectious diseases are dynamic, the maps are presented in the context of a changing world, and how these changes are influencing the geographical distribution on human infections.
Publication Date: 2012
Geomedicine: Geography and Personal Health by ESRIThere is abundant evidence that the use of geographic information has had a dramatic impact on the work of health professionals. Medical epidemiologists, the front line of disease detectives, have used GIS extensively in their fight against diseases that have a clear relationship between person, place, and time. GIS has also played an important role in protecting communities from otherwise overlooked risks and toxic exposures.Geomedicine applies the power of GIS technology to personal health. As this concept continues to be adopted by more health care professionals, physicians will increasingly use geomedicine to help diagnose, treat, and prevent illness and, in some cases, even make recommendations to patients on where they might live, work, and play.
Publication Date: 2012
An Introduction to the Geography of Health by Peter Anthamatten; Helen HazenHealth issues such as the emergence of infectious diseases, the potential influence of global warming on human health, and the escalating strain of increasing longevity and chronic conditions on healthcare systems are of growing importance in an increasingly peopled and interconnected world. A geographic approach to the study of health offers a critical perspective to these issues, considering how changing relationships between people and their environments influence human health. An Introduction to the Geography of Health provides an accessible introduction to this rapidly growing field, covering theoretical and methodological background. The text is divided into three sections which consider distinct approaches and techniques related to health geographies. Sectionnbsp;one introduces ecological approaches, with a focus on how natural and built environments affect human health. For instance, how have irrigation projects influenced the spread of water-borne diseases? How can modern healthcare settings, such as hospitals, affect the spread and evolution of pathogens? Sectionnbsp;two discusses social aspects of health and healthcare, considering health as not merely a biological interaction between a pathogen and human host, but as a process that is situated among social factors which ultimately drive who suffers from what, and where disease occurs. Section three then considers spatial techniques and approaches to exploring health, giving special focus to the growing role of cartography and geographic information systems (GIS) in the study of health. This clearly written text contains a range of pedagogical features including a wealth of global case studies, discussion questions and suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter, a colour plate section and over eighty diagrams and figures. The accompanying website also provides presentations, exercises, further resources, and tables and figures. This book is an essential introductory text for undergraduate students studying Geography, Health and Social Studies.
Publication Date: 2012-05-23
Atlas of travel medicine and health by Jane ChiodiniThis third edition of the Atlas of Travel Medicine and Health provides the latest travel health information in a visual format that will aid the healthcare professional when discussing travel health and educating the traveler regarding the risks and precautions that should be considered before and during travel in disease risk areas. The authors have extensive experience in travel medicine, and both are engaged in clinical practices in the field. Carefully drawn maps and icons provide much information at a glance in this attractive reference. The Atlas is organized around three sections: Section 1: General Travel Advice on topics such as water, food, personal hygiene, accidents, animal and insect bites, parasitic infection, sun and heat, casual sex, altitude, and medical coverage and insurance. Section 2: Travel-Related Diseases and Their Global Distribution for diseases such as malaria, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, cholera, typhoid, yellow fever, meningitis, schistomomiasis (Bilharzia infection), dengue, polio, Japanese B encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, and traveler s diarrhea, and several more. Section 3: Country-Specific Advice, Maps, and Weather, which includes immunization recommendations, malaria advice and precautions, and other health considerations. Sections 1 and 2 are written with the healthcare professional in mind, and Section 3 serves as a resource for both the professional and the traveler. The Atlas is filled with up-to-date, easily accessed travel health information.
Publication Date: 2011
GIS and Public Health by Ellen K. Cromley; Sara L. McLaffertyAuthoritative and comprehensive, this is the leading text and professional resource on using geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and address public health problems. Basic GIS concepts and tools are explained, including ways to access and manage spatial databases. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for mapping and analyzing data on population, health events, risk factors, and health services, and for incorporating geographical knowledge into planning and policy. Numerous maps, diagrams, and real-world applications are featured. The companion Web page provides lab exercises with data that can be downloaded for individual or course use. New to This Edition *Incorporates major technological advances, such as Internet-based mapping systems and the rise of data from cell phones and other GPS-enabled devices. *Chapter on health disparities. *Expanded coverage of public participation GIS. *Companion Web page has all-new content. *Goes beyond the United States to encompass an international focus.
Publication Date: 2011-10-13
Modern Infectious Disease Epidemiology : Concepts, Methods, Mathematical Models, and Public Health by Alexander Krämer (Editor); Mirjam Kretzschmar (Editor); Klaus Krickeberg (Editor)Hardly a day goes by without news headlines concerning infectious disease threats. Currently the spectre of a pandemic of influenza A|H1N1 is raising its head, and heated debates are taking place about the pro's and con's of vaccinating young girls against human papilloma virus. For an evidence-based and responsible communication of infectious disease topics to avoid misunderstandings and overreaction of the public, we need solid scientific knowledge and an understanding of all aspects of infectious diseases and their control. The aim of our book is to present the reader with the general picture and the main ideas of the subject. The book introduces the reader to methodological aspects of epidemiology that are specific for infectious diseases and provides insight into the epidemiology of some classes of infectious diseases characterized by their main modes of transmission. This choice of topics bridges the gap between scientific research on the clinical, biological, mathematical, social and economic aspects of infectious diseases and their applications in public health. The book will help the reader to understand the impact of infectious diseases on modern society and the instruments that policy makers have at their disposal to deal with these challenges. It is written for students of the health sciences, both of curative medicine and public health, and for experts that are active in these and related domains, and it may be of interest for the educated layman since the technical level is kept relatively low.
Publication Date: 2010-01-23
Medical Geography by Melinda S. Meade; Michael EmchThe leading text in the field, this comprehensive book reviews geographic approaches to studying disease and public health issues across the globe. It presents cutting-edge techniques of spatial and social analysis and explores their relevance for understanding cultural and political ecology, disease systems, and health promotion. Essential topics include how new diseases emerge and epidemics develop in particular places; the intersecting influences on health of biological processes, culture, environment, and behavior; and the changing landscape of health care planning and service delivery. The text is richly illustrated with tables, figures, and maps, including 16 color plates.
Publication Date: 2010-04-20
GIS in Hospital and Healthcare Emergency Management by Ric Skinner; GISP SkinnerAlthough many books have been published on the application of GIS in emergency management and disaster response, this is the first one to bring together a comprehensive discussion of the critical role GIS plays in hospital and healthcare emergency management and disaster response. Illustrating a wide range of practical applications, GIS in Hospital
Publication Date: 2010-04-27
A Companion to Health and Medical Geography by Tim Brown; Sara McLafferty; Graham MoonThis Companion provides a comprehensive account of health and medical geography and approaches the major themes and key topics from a variety of angles. Offers a unique breadth of topics relating to both health and medical geography Includes contributions from a range of scholars from rising stars to established, internationally renowned authors Provides an up-to-date review of the state of the sub-discipline Thematically organized sections offer detailed accounts of specific issues and combine general overviews of the current literature with case study material Chapters cover topics at the cutting edge of the sub-discipline, including emerging and re-emerging diseases, the politics of disease, mental and emotional health, landscapes of despair, and the geography of care
Early Detection and Response to Infectious Disease by ESRISuccessful understanding and response to infectious disease outbreaks depend greatly on the ability to consider the surrounding context. Disease spreads geographically, and interventions occur in relation to human, institutional, climatic, and other kinds of landscapes. Because GIS technology relates many kinds of data to geographic location, it excels in tracking not only disease spread but also laboratory specimen and medical supply whereabouts, hospital bed availability, testing facility proximity, vulnerable population locations, and medical personnel distribution. Built-in GIS analysis tools provide effective early warning systems and preparedness programs that generate meaningful information that public health offi cials need to make effective decisions—at the community, national, and global levels.During an outbreak, GIS provides tools that speed the collection of accurate fi eld data. Complex statistical and other analyses applied with GIS technology provide relevant information to support sound decisions. GIS analysis can, for example, locate a potential disease hot spot and calculate a nearby hospital's ability to handle the expected increase in service demand if an outbreak should occur. Public health emergencies are not of short duration. Effects of a disease outbreak (or an environmental disaster such as a chemical spill) have the potential for long-term impacts on the health and well-being of a community. Public health organizations rely on GIS analysis tools to assess data collected in the process of monitoring long-term health effects.
Publication Date: 2009
The geographic spread of infectious diseases : models and applications by Lisa SattenspielThe 1918-19 influenza epidemic killed more than fifty million people worldwide. The SARS epidemic of 2002-3, by comparison, killed fewer than a thousand. The success in containing the spread of SARS was due largely to the rapid global response of public health authorities, which was aided by insights resulting from mathematical models. Models enabled authorities to better understand how the disease spread and to assess the relative effectiveness of different control strategies. In this book, Lisa Sattenspiel and Alun Lloyd provide a comprehensive introduction to mathematical models in epidemiology and show how they can be used to predict and control the geographic spread of major infectious diseases. Key concepts in infectious disease modeling are explained, readers are guided from simple mathematical models to more complex ones, and the strengths and weaknesses of these models are explored. The book highlights the breadth of techniques available to modelers today, such as population-based and individual-based models, and covers specific applications as well. Sattenspiel and Lloyd examine the powerful mathematical models that health authorities have developed to understand the spatial distribution and geographic spread of influenza, measles, foot-and-mouth disease, and SARS. Analytic methods geographers use to study human infectious diseases and the dynamics of epidemics are also discussed. A must-read for students, researchers, and practitioners, no other book provides such an accessible introduction to this exciting and fast-evolving field.
Infectious diseases : emergence and re-emergence : a geographical analysis by A. D. Cliff; Matthew R. Smallman-Raynor; P. Haggett; D. F. Stroup; S. B. ThackerThe last four decades of human history have seen the emergence of an unprecedented number of 'new' infectious diseases: the familiar roll call includes AIDS, Ebola, H5N1 influenza, hantavirus, hepatitis E, Lassa fever, legionnaires' and Lyme diseases, Marburg fever, Rift Valley fever, SARS,and West Nile. The outbreaks range in scale from global pandemics that have brought death and misery to millions, through to self-limiting outbreaks of mainly local impact. Some outbreaks have erupted explosively but have already faded away; some grumble along or continue to devastate as nowpersistent features in the medical lexicon; in others, a huge potential threat hangs uncertainly and worryingly in the air. Some outbreaks are merely local, others are worldwide.This book looks at the epidemiological and geographical conditions which underpin disease emergence. What are the processes which lead to emergence? Why now in human history? Where do such diseases emerge and how do they spread or fail to spread around the globe? What is the armoury of surveillanceand control measures that may curb the impact of such diseases? But, uniquely, it sets these questions on the modern period of disease emergence in an historical context. First, it uses the historical record to set recent events against a much broader temporal canvas, finding emergence to be aconstant theme in disease history rather than one confined to recent decades. It concludes that it is the quantitative pace of emergence, rather than its intrinsic nature, that separates the present period from earlier centuries. Second, it looks at the spatial and ecological setting of emergence,using hundreds of specially-drawn maps to chart the source areas of new diseases and the pathways of their spread. The book is divided into three main sections: Part 1 looks at early disease emergence, Part 2 at the processes of disease emergence, and Part 3 at the future for emergentdiseases.
Spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiologySpatial and Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that provides a home for high quality work which straddles the areas of GIS, epidemiology, exposure science, and spatial statistics. The journal focuses on answering epidemiological questions where spatial and spatio-temporal approaches are appropriate. The methods should help to advance our understanding of infectious and non-infectious diseases in humans.
The journal will also consider applications where health care provision is the focus. Coverage of veterinary topics will be included, and those with direct human health implications are especially welcome. The journal places special emphasis on spatio-temporal aspects of emerging diseases (e.g., avian flu, SARS), development of spatial statistical and computational methods, and novel applications of geospatial technology (e.g., GPS, GIS) for shedding insights on exposure and disease processes.
Publication Date: 2009-
Geospatial healthall aspects of the application of geographical information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems, spatial statistics and other geospatial tools in human and veterinary health.
Cholera, chloroform, and the science of medicine : a life of John Snow by Nigel Paneth; Stephen Rachman; Michael Rip; David Zuck; Howard Brody; Peter Vinten-JohansenThe product of six years of collaborative research, this fine biography offers new interpretations of a pioneering figure in anesthesiology, epidemiology, medical cartography, and public health. It modifies the conventional rags to riches portrait of John Snow by synthesizing freshinformation about his early life from archival research and recent studies. It explores the intellectual roots of his commitments to vegetarianism, temperance, and pure drinking water, first developed when he was a medical apprentice and assistant in the north of England. The authors argue thatall of Snow's later contributions are traceable to the medical paradigm he imbibed as a medical student in London and put into practice early in his career as a clinician: that medicine as a science required the incorporation of recent developments in its collateral sciences--chiefly anatomy,chemistry, and physiology--in order to understand the causes of disease. Snow's theoretical breakthroughs in anesthesia were extensions of his experimental research in respiratory physiology and the properties of inhaled gases. Shortly thereafter, his understanding of gas laws led him to rejectmiasmatic explanations for the spread of cholera, and to develop an alternative theory in consonance with what was then known about chemistry and the physiology of digestion. Using all of Snow's writings, the authors follow him when working in his home laboratory, visiting patients throughoutLondon, attending medical society meetings, and conducting studies during the cholera epidemics of 1849 and 1854. The result is a book that demythologizes some overly heroic views of Snow by providing a fairer measure of his actual contributions. It will have an impact not only on theunderstanding of the man but also on the history of epidemiology and medical science.
The Tobacco Atlas by Judith Mackay; Michael P. Eriksen; World Health Organization Staff (Contribution by)Research in the past five years suggests a bleak picture of the health dangers of smoking, with tobacco the biggest single killer of all forms of pollution. It is estimated that one person dies every ten seconds due to smoking-related diseases. This publication considers the history and current position regarding tobacco use, as well as providing some predictions for the future of the tobacco epidemic upto the year 2050. It contains a number of full-colour world maps and graphics to illustrate the variations between countries and regions. Issues discussed include: tobacco prevalence and consumption; youth smoking; the economics of tobacco farming and manufacturing; smuggling; the tobacco industry, promotion, profits and trade; smokers' rights; legislative action such as smoke-free areas, tobacco advertising bans and health warnings.
An Introductory Guide to Disease Mapping by Andrew B. Lawson; Fiona L. R. WilliamsThis superb introductory guide explains the basic principles underlying the construction and analysis of disease maps. Growing public awareness of environmental hazards has increased the demand for investigations into the geographical distribution of disease and as data resulting from studies is not always straightforward to interpret, there has been a need for an accessible, clearly written introduction to the subject. This book supplies the reader with an array of tools and skills so that maps may be produced and correctly interpreted, and also describes the role of disease mapping within epidemiology, highlighting its important role in studies of environmental health and environmental epidemiology. It provides: * An introduction to new developments in disease mapping * Comprehensive coverage of an active area of research and development * Numerous case studies to highlight the application of the techniques discussed This text will be invaluable to anyone with an interest in disease mapping, and is an essential volume for both the specialist and the non-specialist. It is of particular relevance to epidemiologists, medical statisticians, geographers, and public health advisors, as well as environmental health workers, occupational health physicians, and infectious disease specialists.