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Citing Sources

Need help citing sources for a paper? This guide provides resources for formatting papers, citing sources, and managing citations.

Where to Begin

WHEN IN DOUBT, CITE YOUR SOURCE

A citation is needed usually when:

  1. You are stating someone else's words, thoughts, or ideas

  2. New information that is considered "uncommon knowledge"

  3. You refer to or use an image, clip, tweet, post, website, etc.

  4. You use your own words, thoughts, or ideas that you have stated in previous work.

A citation is not usually needed when:

  1. You are stating YOUR opinion on a subject (i.e. I really do not like the new Star Wars as much as it was hyped up to be.)

  2. It is common knowledge (i.e. Nashville is the capital of Tennessee in the United States.)

Herbert Writing Center

The Judith Anderson Herbert Writing Center provides free and individualized help for both undergraduate and graduate students throughout the writing process including citation assistance! Trained tutors can help with in-text citations and references for APA, MLA, Chicago, and many more!

Check out their website for more information about services and how to schedule an appointment!

writingcenter.utk.edu

Frequently Used Citation Styles

AMA (American Medical Association) 

The AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition is mainly used for medical or scientific publishing. Below are some great resources to cite in AMA. Access to the Eleventh Edition is coming soon!

APA (American Psychological Association)

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition is commonly used to cite in the social and behavioral sciences, natural sciences, nursing, communications, education, business, and engineering to name a few. Please check with your department or professor to see what citation style is preferred. Some resources include:

Looking for 6th edition resources? Check out the APA Style Sixth Edition Resources page for links to the archived style blog, sample papers, quick answers, and supplemental materials.

Chicago/Turabian 

This style is mainly used in Historical Research. Below are some great resources to cite in Chicago or Turabian.

MLA (Modern Language Association)

The MLA Handbook, Eighth Edition is mainly used to cite in the humanities. The MLA Style Center is a great place to start when beginning to format your paper in MLA. Additional resources include: