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ACVECC: Seminal Article Lists, 2012

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This guide contains American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (ACVECC) 2012 seminal article lists.  This guide was created in February 2012, using the lists linked below.

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Small Animal Seminal Article List, 2012

Acid-base

1. Constable PD. Clinical assessment of acid-base status: Comparison of the Henderson-Hasselbalch and strong ion approaches. Vet Clin Pathol 2000;29:115-128.

2. Boag AK, Coe RJ, Martinez TA, Hughes D. Acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities in dogs with gastrointestinal foreign bodies. J Vet Intern Med 2005; 19(6):816-821.

3. Drobatz KJ, Cole SG. The influence of crystalloid type on acid-base and electrolyte status of cats with urethral obstruction. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2008; 18(4):355-361.

4. Hopper K, Haskins SC. A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acidbase analysis. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2008; 18(5):467-476.

Anesthesia/Analgesia

5. Morton CM, Reid J, Scott EM, Holton LL, Nolan AM. Application of a scaling model to establish and validate an interval level pain scale for assessment of acute pain in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2005; 66(12):2154-2166.

Cardiovascular

6. Smith SA, Tobias AH, Jacob KA, Fine DM, Grumbles PL. Arterial thromboembolism in cats: Acute crisis in 127 cases (1992-2001) and long-term management with low-dose aspirin in 24 cases. J Vet Intern Med. 2003; 17(1):73-83.

7. Brady CA, Hughes D, Drobatz KJ. Association of hyponatremia and hyperglycemia with outcome in dogs with congestive heart failure. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2004; 14(3):177-182.

8. Haskins S, Pascoe PJ, Ilkiw JE, Fudge J, Hopper K, Aldrich J. Reference cardiopulmonary values in normal dogs. Comp Med. 2005; 55(2):156-161.

9. Haskins SC, Pascoe PJ, Ilkiw JE, Fudge M, Hopper K, Aldrich J. The effect of moderate hypovolemia on cardiopulmonary function in dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2005; 15(2):100-109.

10. Tag TL, Day TK. Electrocardiographic assessment of hyperkalemia in dogs and cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2008; 18(1):61-67.

11. Stokol T, Brooks M, Rush JE, Rishniw M, Erb H, Rozanski E, Kraus MS, Gelzer AR. Hypercoagulability in cats with cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med 2008; 22(3):546-552.

12. Biomarkers in Veterinary Cardiology. J Vet Cardiol 2009; 11(S1):S1-S98.

CPCR

13. Plunkett SJ, McMichael M. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in small animal medicine: an update. J Vet Intern Med 2008; 22(1):9-25.

14. American Heart Association. 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2010; 122(S3):S640-933.

Fluid therapy

15. Finfer S, Bellomo R, Boyce N, French J, Myburgh J, Norton R. A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. New Engl J Med. 2004; 350(22):2247-2256.

16. Mathews KA, Barry M. The use of 25% human serum albumin: outcome and efficacy in raising serum albumin and systemic blood pressure in critically ill dogs and cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2005; 15(2):110-118.

17. Silverstein DC, Aldrich J, Haskins SC, Drobatz KJ, Cowgill LD. Assessment of changes in blood volume in response to resuscitative fluid administration in dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2005; 15(3):185-192.

18. Cohn LA, Kerl ME, Lenox CE, Livingston RS, Dodam JR. Response of healthy dogs to infusions of human serum albumin. Am J Vet Res 2007; 68(6):657-663.

19. Martin LG, Luther TY, Alperin DC, et al. Serum antibodies against human albumin in critically ill and healthy dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 232(7):1004-1009.

20. Perel P, Roberts I. Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; (3):CD000567.

21. Bunn F, Trivedi D, Ashraf S. Colloid solutions for fluid resuscitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; (3):CD001319.

GI/Nutrition

22. Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, Verwaest C, Bruyninckx F, Schetz M, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. New Engl J Med. 2001; 345(19):1359-1367.

Hematology (Including coagulation)

23. Hoffman M, Monroe DM. A cell-based model of hemostasis. Thromb Haemost. 2001; 85(6):958-65.

24. Taylor FB, Toh CH, Hoots WK, et al. Towards definition, clinical and laboratory criteria, and a scoring system for disseminated intravascular coagulation - On behalf of the Scientific Subcommittee on Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). Thromb Haemost 2001; 86(5):1327-1330.

25. Estrin MA, Wehausen CE, Jessen CR, Lee JA. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cats. J Vet Intern Med. 2006; 20(6):1334-1339.

26. Pachtinger GE, Otto CM, Syring RS. Incidence of prolonged prothrombin time in dogs following gastrointestinal decontamination for acute anticoagulant rodenticide ingestion. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2008; 18(3):285-291.

27. Wiinberg B, Jensen AL, Johansson PI, Kjelgaard-Hansen M, Rozanski E, Tranholm M, et al. Development of a model based scoring system for diagnosis of canine disseminated intravascular coagulation with independent assessment of sensitivity and specificity. Vet J. 2010; 185(3):292-298.

Monitoring

28. King LG, Wohl JS, Manning AM, Hackner SG, Raffe MR, Maislin G. Evaluation of the survival prediction index as a model of risk stratification for clinical research in dogs admitted to intensive care units at four locations. Am J Vet Res. 2001; 62(6):948-954.

29. Harvey S, Harrison DA, Singer M, Ashcroft J, Jones CM, Elbourne D, et al. Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of pulmonary artery catheters in management of patients in intensive care (PAC-Man): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005; 366(9484):472-477.

30. Pang D, Caulkett JHNA, Duke T. Partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 sampled via an intranasal catheter as a substitute for partial pressure of arterial CO2 in dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2007; 17(2):143-148.

31. Vincent JL, Rhodes A, Perel A, Martin GS, Rocca GD, Vallet B, Pinsky MR, Hofer CK, Teboul JL, de Boode WP, Scolletta S, Vieillard-Baron A, De Backer D, Walley KR, Maggiorini M, Singer M. Clinical review: Update on hemodynamic monitoring - a consensus of 16. Crit Care. 2011; 15(4):229.

Renal/U-G

32. Schrier RW, Wang W. Acute renal failure and sepsis. New Engl J Med 2004; 351(2):159-69.

33. Worwag S, Langston CE. Acute intrinsic renal failure in cats: 32 cases (1997–2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 232(5):728-732.

34. Palevsky PM, Zhang JH, O'Connor TZ, Chertow GM, Crowley ST, Choudhury D, et al. Intensity of renal support in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. New Engl J Med. 2008; 359(1):7-20.

Reproductive

35. Pretzer SD. Medical management of canine and feline dystocia. Theriogenology. 2008; 70(3):332-336.

36. Traas AM. Surgical management of canine and feline dystocia. Theriogenology. 2008; 70(3):337-342.

37. Traas AM. Resuscitation of canine and feline neonates. Theriogenology. 2008; 70(3):343-348.

Respiratory

38. Parent C, King LG, Van Winkle TJ, Walker LM. Respiratory function and treatment in dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome: 19 cases (1985-1993). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1996; 208(9):1428-1433.

39. Parent C, King LG, Walker LM, Van Winkle TJ. Clinical and clinicopathologic findings in dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome: 19 cases (1985-1993). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1996; 208(9):1419-1427.

40. Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, Schoenfeld D, Wiedemann HP, deBoisblanc B, et al. Pulmonary artery versus central venous catheter to guide treatment of acute lung injury. New Engl J Med. 2006; 354(21):2213-2224.

41. Wiedemann HP, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, Hayden D, deBoisblanc B, et al. Comparison of two fluid-management strategies in acute lung injury. New Engl J Med. 2006; 354(24):2564-2575.

42. Wilkins PA, Otto CM, Baumgardner JE, Dunkel B, Bedenice D et al. Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndromes in veterinary medicine: consensus definitions: The Dorothy Russell Havemeyer Working Group on ALI and ARDS in Veterinary Medicine. J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2007; 17(4):333-339.

43. Kogan DA, Johnson LR, Jandrey KE, Pollard RE. Clinical, clinicopathologic, and radiographic findings in dogs with aspiration pneumonia: 88 cases (2004-2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 233(11):1742-1747.

44. Kogan DA, Johnson LR, Sturges BK, et al. Etiology and clinical outcome in dogs with aspiration pneumonia: 88 cases (2004-2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 233(11):1748-1755.

Sepsis/SIRS

45. Hauptman JG, Walshaw R, Olivier NB. Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic criteria for sepsis in dogs. Vet Surg. 1997; 26(5):393-397.

46. Brady CA, Otto CM, Van Winkle TJ, King LG. Severe sepsis in cats: 29 cases (1986-1998). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000; 217(4):531-535.

47. Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, Ressler J, Muzzin A, Knoblich B, et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. New Engl J Med. 2001; 345(19):1368-1377.

48. Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, LaRosa SP, Dhainaut JF, Lopez-Rodriguez A, et al. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. New Engl J Med. 2001; 344(10):699-709.

49. Annane D, Sebille V, Charpentier C, Bollaert PE, Francois B, Korach JM, et al. Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock. JAMA. 2002; 288(7):862-871.

50. de Laforcade AM, Freeman LM, Shaw SP, Brooks MB, Rozanski EA, Rush JE. Hemostatic changes in dogs with naturally occurring sepsis. J Vet Intern Med. 2003; 17(5):674-679.

51. Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, Abraham E, Angus D, Cook D, et al. 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Crit Care Med. 2003; 31(4):1250-1256.

52. Kumar A, Roberts D, Wood KE, Light B, Parrillo JE, Sharma S, et al. Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2006; 34(6):1589-1596.

53. Annane D, Vignon P, Renault A, Bollaert PE, Charpentier C, Martin C, et al. Norepinephrine plus dobutamine versus epinephrine alone for management of septic shock: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2007; 370(9588):676-684.

54. Schoeman JP, Goddard A, Herrtage ME. Serum cortisol and thyroxine concentrations as predictors of death in critically ill puppies with parvoviral diarrhea. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 231(10):1534-1539.

55. Burkitt JM, Haskins SC, Nelson RW, Kass PH. Relative adrenal insufficiency in dogs with sepsis. J Vet Int Med. 2007; 21(2):226-231.

56. Martin LG, Groman RP, Fletcher DJ, Behrend EN, Kemppainen RJ, Moser VR, Hickey KC. Pituitary-adrenal function in dogs with acute critical illness. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 233(1):87-95.

57. de Laforcade AM, Rozanski EA, Freeman LM, Li W. Serial evaluation of protein C and antithrombin in dogs with sepsis. J Vet Intern Med 2008; 22(1):26-30.

58. Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Carlet JM, Bion J, Parker MM, Jaeschke R, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008. Crit Care Med. 2008; 36(1):296-327.

59. Marik PE, Pastores SM, Annane D, et al. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: Consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 2008; 36(6):1937-1949.

60. Sprung CL, Annane D, Keh D, Moreno R, Singer M, Freivogel K, et al. Hydrocortisone therapy for patients with septic shock. New Engl J Med. 2008; 358(2):111-124.

61. Russell JA, Walley KR, Singer J, Gordon AC, Hebert PC, Cooper DJ, et al. Vasopressin versus norepinephrine infusion in patients with septic shock. New Engl J Med. 2008; 358(9):877-887.

Shock

62. Antonelli M, Levy M, Andrews PJ, Chastre J, Hudson LD, Manthous C, Meduri GU, Moreno RP, Putensen C, Stewart T, Torres A. Hemodynamic monitoring in shock and implications for management. International Consensus Conference, Paris, France, 27-28 April 2006. Intensive Care Med. 2007; 33(4):575-590.

63. Silverstein DC, Wininger FA, Shofer FS, King LG. Relationship between Doppler blood pressure and survival or response to treatment in critically ill cats: 83 cases (2003-2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 232(6):893-897.

Toxicology

64. http://www.nacct.org/positionstatements.cfm

65. Betten DP, Vohra RB, Cook MD, Matteucci MJ, Clark RF. Antidote use in the critically ill poisoned patient. J Intensive Care Med. 2006; 21(5):255-277.

66. Jamaty C, Bailey B, Larocque A, Notebaert E, Sanogo K, Chauny JM. Lipid emulsions in the treatment of acute poisoning: a systematic review of human and animal studies. Clin Toxicol. 2010; 48(1):1-27.

Transfusion medicine

67. Hebert PC, Wells G, Blajchman MA, Marshall J, Martin C, Pagliarello G, et al. A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of transfusion requirements in Crit Care. New Engl J Med. 1999; 340(6):409-417.

68. Jutkowitz LA, Rozanski EA, Moreau JA, Rush JE. Massive transfusion in dogs: 15 cases (1997-2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002; 220(11):1664-1669.

69. Corwin HL, Gettinger A, Fabian TC, May A, Pearl RG, Heard S, et al. Efficacy and safety of epoetin alfa in critically ill patients. New Engl J Med. 2007; 357(10):965-976.

70. Marik PE, Corwin HL. Efficacy of red blood cell transfusion in the critically ill: a systematic review of the literature. Crit Care Med. 2008; 36(9):2667-2674.

71. Marik PE, Corwin HL. Acute lung injury following blood transfusion: Expanding the definition. Crit Care Med 2008; 36(11):3080-3084.

Trauma

72. Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, Holford TR, Young W, Baskin DS, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury - results of the 2nd national acute spinal-cord injury study. New Engl J Med. 1990; 322(20):1405-1411.

73. Platt SR, Radaelli ST, McDonnell JJ. The prognostic value of the modified Glasgow Coma Scale in head trauma in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2001; 15(6):581-584.

74. Syring RS, Otto CM, Drobatz KJ. Hyperglycemia in dogs and cats with head trauma: 122 cases (1997-1999). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001; 218(7):1124-1129.

75. Boysen SR, Rozanski EA, Tidwell AS, Holm JL, Shaw SP, Rush JE. Evaluation of a focused assessment with sonography for trauma protocol to detect free abdominal fluid in dogs involved in motor vehicle accidents. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004; 225(8):1198-1204.

76. Roberts I, Yates D, Sandercock P, Farrell B, Wasserberg J, Lomas G, et al. Effect of intravenous corticosteroids on death within 14 days in 10008 adults with clinically significant head injury (MRC CRASH trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2004; 364(9442):1321-1328.

77. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2007; 24(S1):S1-106.

78. Lisciandro GR, Lagutchik MS, Mann KA, Voges AK, Fosgate GT, Tiller EG, Cabano NR, Bauer LD, Book BP. Evaluation of a thoracic focused assessment with sonography for trauma (TFAST) protocol to detect pneumothorax and concurrent thoracic injury in 145 traumatized dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2008; 18(3):258-269.

79. Levine JM, Levine GJ, Boozer L, et al. Adverse effects and outcome associated with dexamethasone administration in dogs with acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation: 161 cases (2000-2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008; 232(3):411-417.

80. CRASH-2 trial collaborators. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant haemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2010; 376(9734):23-32.

Ventilation

81. The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. New Engl J Med 2000; 342(18):1301-1308.

82. Lee JA, Drobatz KJ, Koch MW, King LG. Indications for and outcome of positive-pressure ventilation in cats: 53 cases (1993-2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005; 226(6):924-931.

83. Hopper K, Haskins SC, Kass PH, et al. Indications, management, and outcome of longterm positive pressure ventilation in dogs and cats: 148 cases (1990-2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007; 230(1):64-75.

Large Animal Seminal Article List, 2012

Acid-Base

1. Constable PD. A simplified strong ion model for acid-base equilibria: application to horse plasma. J Appl Physiol 1997;83(1): 297–311.

2. Constable PD. Clinical assessment of acid-base status: comparison of the Henderson-Hasselbalch and strong ion approaches. Vet Clin Pathol 2000;29:115-128.

3. Constable PD, Stampfli HR, Navetat H, et al. Use of a quantitative strong ion approach to determine the mechanism for acid-base abnormalities in sick calves with or without diarrhea. J Vet Intern Med 2005; 19(4):581-589.

4. Hopper K, Haskins SC. A case-based review of a simplified quantitative approach to acid-base analysis. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2008; 18(5):467-476.

Anesthesia/Analgesia

5. Haskins SC. Comparative cardiovascular and pulmonary effects of sedatives and anesthetic agents and anesthetic drug selection for the trauma patient. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2006;16(4):300-328.

6. Armitage Chan EA, Wetmore LA, Chan DL. Anesthetic management of the head trauma patient. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2007;17(1):5-14.

Cardiovascular

7. Corley KT, Donaldson LL, Durando MM, Birks EK. Cardiac output technologies with special reference to the horse. J Vet Intern Med. 2003;17(3):262-272.

8. Valverde A, Giguère S, Sanchez LC, et al. Dobutamine, norepinephrine and vasopressin in anesthesized foals with hypotension. Am J Vet Res 2006;67(10):1730-1737.

9. Tag TL, Day TK. Electrocardiographic assessment of hyperkalemia in dogs and cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2008;18(1):61-67.

10. Long KM, Kirby R. An update on cardiovascular adrenergic receptor physiology and potential pharmacologic applications in veterinary medicine. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2008;18(1):2-25

11. Biomarkers in Veterinary Cardiology. J Vet Cardiol 2009; 11(S1):S1-S98.

Cardiopulmonary Cerebral Resuscitation

12. Plunkett SJ, McMichael M. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in small animal medicine: an update. J Vet Intern Med 2008;22(1):9-25.

13. Gueugniaud PY, David JS, Chanzy E, et al. Vasopressin and epinephrine vs. epinephrine alone in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N Engl J Med 2008;359(1):21-30.

14. American Heart Association. 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2010; 122(S3):S640-933.

Fluid Therapy

15. Adrogue HJ, Madias NE. Hyponatremia. New Engl J Med 2000;342(21):1581-1589.

16. Adrogue HJ, Madias NE. Hypernatremia. New Engl J Med 2000;342(20):1493-1499.

17. SAFE Study Investigators; Finfer S, Bellomo R, Boyce N, et al. A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. New Engl J Med 2004;350(22):2247-2256.

18. McMichael M, Moore R. Ischemia-Reperfusion injury pathophysiology, part I. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2004;14(4):231-241.

19. McMichael M, Moore R. Ischemia-Reperfusion injury: assessment and treatment, part II. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2004; 14(4):242-252.

20. Silverstein DC, Aldrich J. Assessment of changes in blood volume in response to resuscitative fluid administration in dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2005;15(3): 185–192.

21. Driessen B, Brainard B. Fluid therapy for the traumatized patient. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2006;16(4):276-299.

22. SAFE Study Investigators; Myburgh J, Cooper DJ, Finfer S, et al. Saline or albumin for fluid resuscitation in patients with traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 2007;357(9):874-884.

23. SAFE Study Investigators; Finfer S, McEvoy S, Bellomo R, et al. Impact of albumin compared to saline on organ function and mortality of patients with severe sepsis. Intensive Care Med 2011;37(1):86-96.

24. Perel P, Roberts I. Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(3):CD000567.

25. Bunn F, Trivedi D, Ashraf S. Colloid solutions for fluid resuscitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; (3):CD001319.
Gastrointestinal/Nutrition

26. Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. New Engl J Med 2001; 345(19):1359-1367.

27. NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators; Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, et al. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 2009;360(13):1283-1297.

Hematology (including coagulation)

28. Barton MH, Morris DD, Norton N, Prasse KW. Hemostatic and fibrinolytic indices in neonatal foals with presumed septicemia. J Vet Intern Med 1998;12(1):26-35.

29. Hoffman M, Monroe DM. A cell-based model of hemostasis. Thromb Haemost 2001; 85(6):958-965.

30. Taylor FB, Toh CH, Hoots WK, et al. Towards definition, clinical and laboratory criteria, and a scoring system for disseminated intravascular coagulation - On behalf of the Scientific Subcommittee on Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). Thromb Haemost 2001; 86(5):1327-1330.

31. Duffy TC, Kirby R, Rudloff E. Critical role of the vascular endothelial cell in health and disease: a review article. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2004;14(2):84-99.

32. Donahue SM, Otto CM. Thromboelastography: a tool for measuring hypercoagulability, hypocoagulability and fibrinolysis. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2005;15(1):9-16.

Monitoring

33. Corley KT, Donaldson LL, Furr MO. Arterial lactate concentration, hospital survival, sepsis and SIRS in critically ill neonatal foals. Equine Vet J 2005;37(1):53-9.

34. Harvey S, Harrison DA, Singer M, et al. Assessment of the clinical effectiveness of pulmonary artery catheters in management of patients in intensive care (PAC-Man): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366(9484):472-477.

35. Vincent JL, Rhodes A, Perel A, et al. Clinical review: update on hemodynamic monitoring - a consensus of 16. Crit Care 2011; 15(4):229.

Renal/Urogenital

36. Bellomo R, Chapman M, Finfer S, et al. Low-dose dopamine in patients with early renal dysfunction: a placebo-controlled randomised trial. Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Clinical Trials Group. Lancet 2000;356(9248):2139-43.

37. Schrier RW, Wang W. Acute renal failure and sepsis. New Engl J Med 2004; 351(2):159-69.

38. Dunkel B, Palmer JE, Olson KN, Boston RC, Wilkins PA. Uroperitoneum in 32 foals: influence of intravenous fluid therapy, infection, and sepsis. J Vet Intern Med 2005;19(6):889-893.

39. Palevsky PM, Zhang JH, O'Connor TZ, et al. Intensity of renal support in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. New Engl J Med 2008;359(1):7-20.

Reproduction

40. Norton JL, Dallap BL, Johnston JK, Palmer JE, Sertich PL, Boston R, Wilkins PA. Retrospective study of dystocia in mares at a referral hospital. Equine Vet J. 2007 Jan;39(1):37-41.

Respiratory

41. Dunkel B, Dolente B, Boston RC. Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome in 15 foals. Equine Vet J 2005;37(5):435-40.

42. Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, et al. Pulmonary artery versus central venous catheter to guide treatment of acute lung injury. New Engl J Med 2006; 354(21):2213-2224.

43. Wiedemann HP, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, et al. Comparison of two fluid-management strategies in acute lung injury. New Engl J Med 2006;354(24):2564-2575.

44. Wilkins PA, Otto CM, Baumgardner JE, et al. Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndromes in veterinary medicine: consensus definitions: The Dorothy Russell Havemeyer Working Group on ALI and ARDS in Veterinary Medicine. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2007;17(4):333-339.
Sepsis/Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)

45. Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. New Engl J Med 2001;345(19):1368-1377.

46. Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, et al. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. New Engl J Med. 2001;344(10):699-709.

47. Annane D, Sebille V, Charpentier C, et al. Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock. J Am Med Assoc 2002;288(7):862-871.

48. Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, et al. 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference. Crit Care Med 2003;31(4):1250-1256.

49. Kumar A, Roberts D, Wood KE, et al. Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med 2006; 34(6):1589-1596.

50. Annane D, Vignon P, Renault A, et al. Norepinephrine plus dobutamine versus epinephrine alone for management of septic shock: a randomised trial. Lancet 2007; 370(9588):676-684.

51. Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Carlet JM, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008. Crit Care Med 2008; 36(1):296-327.

52. Marik PE, Pastores SM, Annane D, et al. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 2008; 36(6):1937-1949.

53. Sprung CL, Annane D, Keh D, et al. Hydrocortisone therapy for patients with septic shock. New Engl J Med. 2008; 358(2):111-124.

54. Russell JA, Walley KR, Singer J, et al. Vasopressin versus norepinephrine infusion in patients with septic shock. New Engl J Med. 2008; 358(9):877-887.

Shock

55. Antonelli M, Levy M, Andrews PJ, et al. Hemodynamic monitoring in shock and implications for management. International Consensus Conference, Paris, France, 27-28 April 2006. Intensive Care Med 2007; 33(4):575-590.

Toxicology

56. http://www.nacct.org/positionstatements.cfm

57. Betten DP, Vohra RB, Cook MD, et al. Antidote use in the critically ill poisoned patient. J Intensive Care Med 2006; 21(5):255-277.

58. Jamaty C, Bailey B, Larocque A, et al. Lipid emulsions in the treatment of acute poisoning: a systematic review of human and animal studies. Clin Toxicol 2010; 48(1):1-27.

Transfusion Medicine

59. Hebert PC, Wells G, Blajchman MA, et al. A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of transfusion requirements in Crit Care. New Engl J Med 1999; 340(6):409-417.

60. Corwin HL, Gettinger A, Fabian TC, et al. Efficacy and safety of epoetin alfa in critically ill patients. New Engl J Med 2007; 357(10):965-976.

61. Marik PE, Corwin HL. Efficacy of red blood cell transfusion in the critically ill: a systematic review of the literature. Crit Care Med 2008; 36(9):2667-2674.

62. Marik PE, Corwin HL. Acute lung injury following blood transfusion: expanding the definition. Crit Care Med 2008; 36(11):3080-3084.

Trauma

63. Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury - results of the 2nd national acute spinal-cord injury study. New Engl J Med 1990; 322(20):1405-1411.

64. Roberts I, Yates D, Sandercock P, et al. Effect of intravenous corticosteroids on death within 14 days in 10,008 adults with clinically significant head injury (MRC CRASH trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004;364(9442):1321-1328.

65. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 2007;24(S1):S1-106.

66. CRASH-2 trial collaborators. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant haemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2010;376(9734):23-32.

Ventilation

67. The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. New Engl J Med 2000; 342(18):1301-1308.

68. Giguère S, Sanchez LC, Shih A, et al. Comparison of the effects of caffeine and doxapram on respiratory and cardiovascular function in foals with induced respiratory acidosis. Am J Vet Res 2007;68(12):1407-1416.