Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Systematic Reviews

Information on how to conduct systematic reviews in psychology and the health sciences

Reporting Results

PRISMA provides a list of items to consider when reporting results. 

  • Study selection:  Give numbers of studies screened, assessed for eligibility, & included in the review, with reasons for exclusions at each stage, ideally with a flow diagram.
  • Study characteristics:  For each study, present characteristics for which data were extracted (e.g., study size, PICOs, follow-up period) & provide the citations.
  • Risk of bias within studies:  Present data on risk of bias of each study &, if available, any outcome level assessment.
  • Results of individual studies:  For all outcomes considered (benefits or harms), present, for each study: (a) simple summary data for each intervention group  (b) effect estimates & confidence intervals, ideally with a forest plot. 
  • Synthesis of results:  Present results of each meta-analysis done, including confidence intervals & measures of consistency.
  • Risk of bias across studies:  Present results of any assessment of risk of bias across studies.
  • Additional analysis:  Give results of additional analyses, if done (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression).

Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement