Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Systematic Reviews

Information on how to conduct systematic reviews in psychology and the health sciences

Systematic Review Process

Here is a more detailed description of the systematic review process.  Note the iterative nature of the process (arrows on the left).  Step 14 refers only to meta-analyses.

Systematic review process-detailed

Tsafnet, G., Glasziou, P., Choong, M.K., et al. Systematic review automation technologies. Systematic Reviews 2014; 3:74;  http://www.systematicreviewsjournal.com/content/3/1/74.

Bias

Bias: "a systematic error, or deviation from the truth, in results or inference" (Cochrane Handbook, ch. 8)

www.effective healthcare.ahrq.gov)

Types of bias include:

  • Publication, time lag, or multiple publication bias
  • Location bias
  • Citation bias
  • Language bias
  • Outcome reporting bias.

For more details on bias and how to prevent it, see: Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (2008,Chapter 8Chapter 10, table 10.1.a)

For guidance on assessing study types, see the assessment templates from the NIH's National Heart, Lung, & Blood Institute forms.