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ANSC 495 - Ethics in Animal Agriculture

Instructor: Lacey Johnston Course: ANSC 495 - Ethics in Animal Agriculture

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Maggie Albro
she/her/hers
Contact:
Pendergrass Library
2407 River Drive, A113D5
Knoxville, TN 37996
865-974-8116
Subjects: Agriculture

Search Tips

Boolean Operators

Boolean Operators

So, what are Boolean Operators?

Boolean Operators are the words AND, OR, and NOT. These words can be added to keyword and phrase searches to expand or narrow your results.

Boolean Operators can be used in most database searches, as well as search engines and online catalogues.


AND

Narrows your search by requiring both search terms/phrases to be included.

Examples:

UTK AND library - will only return results that include both terms UTK and library.

A Venn diagram with two overlapping circles. One is labeled UTK. The other is labeled Library. The overlapped portion is highlighted, representing that a search of UTK AND Library only returns documents that contain the terms UTK and library.

Results may include:

  • Library at UTK
  • Your UTK Library Account
  • John C. Hodges Library at UTK

aerospace AND engineering - will only return results that include both terms aerospace and engineering.

Results may include:

  • different fields of engineering like aerospace, mechanical, and structural
  • Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
  • International Journal of Aerospace Engineering

Tip:

In Google, you can use AND, the Ampersand symbol ( & ), the Plus sign ( + ), or nothing to connect words (the space between words is interpreted as AND).



OR

Expands your search by looking for the first term/phrase, the second term/phrase, or both.

Examples:

UTK OR library - will return results that include UTK, the library, or both.

A Venn diagram with two overlapping circles. One is labeled UTK. The other is labeled Library. All portions of both circles are highlighted, representing that a search of UTK OR Library returns documents that contain the terms UTK, library, or UTK and library.

Results may include:

  • UTK English Department
  • Knoxville Public Library
  • John C. Hodges Library at UTK

aerospace OR engineering - will return results that include aerospace, the engineering, or both.

Results may include:

  • Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology
  • IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
  • Journal of Engineering

Tip:

Using the OR Boolean Operator is also helpful to use when you have synonyms or word variations. For instance, if you were searching for athletics OR sports or doctor OR medic.


Tip:

Google recognizes the OR operator, but you can also use the Pipe or Vertical Bar character ( | ).



NOT

Narrows your search by looking for one term/phrase and not another.

Examples:

UTK NOT library - will return results that include the term UTK but will not include those with the term library.

A Venn diagram with two circles that do not overlap. One is labeled UTK. The other is labeled Library. All portions of the UTK circle is highlighted, representing that a search of UTK NOT Library only returns documents that contain the term UTK and not those that contain library.

Results may include:

  • UTK Athletics
  • Haslam College of Business at UTK
  • Results would not include John C. Hodges Library at UTK

aerospace NOT engineering - will return results that include the term aerospace but will not include those with the term engineering.

Results may include:

  • Aerospace Industries Association of America
  • Office of Aerospace Medicine Reports
  • Results would not include Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology

Tip:

Google does not use the NOT operator. Instead, use the Minus sign ( - ) without a space in front of the word you want to exclude. (UTK -Library)


Exact Phrase

Quotation Marks (" ")

Place quotation marks around search terms to limit your search to those exact phrases in that exact order.

Example:

"University of Tennessee Knoxville" - returns results containing the University of Tennessee Knoxville, but will miss pages that only contain UTK as well as other campuses in the University of Tennessee system, such as UT Chattanooga.


Tip:

You can use quotations to look for multiple exact phrases in one query. For instance, "University of Tennessee Knoxville" AND "University Libraries" AND "game night".


Nesting

Parentheses ( )

Place parentheses around search terms/phrases to group them and clarify a search order. This is especially useful when searching for synonyms or spelling variations.

Example:

(athletics OR sports) AND UTK - will first search for the items in the parentheses, athletics or sports, and then search those sites/documents for the term UTK.


Tip:

You can use parentheses to group multiple sets of terms/phrases together. For instance, (athletics OR sports) AND (UTK OR "University of Tennessee Knoxville").


Tip:

Databases will typically show your search string after you've completed a search. They often group your search queries using parentheses based on how you entered the terms into the search box(es). Reviewing how the database has structured the search string can help you identify why you get specific results, and can help you better understand the relationships built using parentheses.


Proximity Operators

Proximity Operators

There may be times when you want to search for terms that are near each other in the text, title, abstract, etc. Proximity Operators are used between search words to assign a certain distance between the words. Some also assign a specific order to the search words. Some common Proximity Operators are Pre, Before, Near, Within, Adjacent, and Around.

Proximity Operators will be used mostly in your database searches, and each database has a specific set of Proximity Operator rules and limitations. To find more about each database's rules, access the database and locate its searching information page - often labeled Help, Search Tips, or something similar.

Below are a few common usages of some popular Proximity Operators. Please remember, the shown operator, its function, and its abbreviations may or may not be used in all databases.


PRE & BEFORE

Requires search terms to be within a designated distance from each other and in a specific order.

Examples:

university PRE/2 knoxville - returns results where the term university is no more than two words before the term knoxville

Results may include:

  • University of Tennessee, Knoxville
  • ...university, located in Knoxville, Tennessee...

international BEFORE/4 ethics - returns results where the term international is no more than four words before the term ethics

Results may include:

  • international business ethics
  • international code of ethics
  • International Symposium on Ethics

Tip:

Some common PRE uses include PRE/n and P/n (with n representing a number). However, each database will use its own set of Proximity Operators. Make sure to check your database of choice to know which operators it uses.



NEAR

Requires search terms to be within a designated distance apart without concern for order.

Examples:

university N/6 knoxville - returns results where the terms university and knoxville are within 6 words of each other, regardless of the order.

Results may include:

  • ...plays Vanderbilt University at Neyland Stadium in Knoxville...
  • ...Knoxville, Tennessee, which is home to the University of Tennessee...

international NEAR/7 ethics - returns results where the terms international and business are within 7 words of each other, regardless of the order.

Results may include:

  • ...international interest in global ethics
  • ...ethics in international relations...
  • Code of ethics describes the core values of the International...

Tip:

Some common NEAR uses include NEAR/n, Nn, and N/n (with n representing a number). However, each database will use its own set of Proximity Operators. Make sure to check your database of choice to know which operators it uses.



WITHIN / WITH

In some database, the WITHIN operator, sometimes referred to as WITH instead, functions similarly to the Pre and Before operators, meaning that it requires a distance and order. In others, it works like the Near operator, which only requires a distance. Consult your preferred database to find out if the order of terms matters.

Examples:

university W/1 knoxville - returns results where the terms university and knoxville are within 1 word of each other, regardless of the order.

Results may include:

  • ...a public research university in Knoxville...
  • University Hotel Knoxville
  • ...located in Knoxville. The university of Tennessee...

international W3 ethics - returns results where the terms international and ethics are within 1 word of each other, and in the designated order.

Results may include:

  • ...international standards and media ethics
  • ...national and international law and ethics, science, and...
  • International Ethics Standards

Tip:

Generally, W/n does NOT require a specific order. Whereas, Wn DOES (with n representing a number). However, this is a general observation and not a rule! Consult your preferred database to find out which Proximity Operators it uses and the rules for each. You may also find ~n used to represent WITHIN.


Tip:

Some databases allow the WITHIN Proximity Operator can be used to search for terms within a sentence or paragraph using the abbreviations W/s (within a sentence) and W/p or W/PARA (within a paragraph). Others suggest using W/15 to search within a sentence and W/50 to search within a paragraph.



ADJACENT

Requires that the search terms appear directly beside each other in the same order as you specify. ADJACENT is not a commonly used Proximity Operator. However, placing your terms in Quotation Marks " " or Braces { } will generally lead to the same results.

Examples:

university ADJ knoxville - returns results where the term university comes directly before the term knoxville.

Results may include:

  • University of Tennessee (Flagship university) Knoxville (main campus)
  • King University, Knoxville campus)

international ADJ ethics - returns results where the term international comes directly before the term ethics.

Results may include:

  • ...field of international ethics
  • What does international ethics mean?

Tip:

Some databases allow a number to be included with the ADJACENT Proximity Operator. In this case, you would use ADJn (with n representing a number) to conduct a search similar to using the NEAR operator.



AROUND

Requires search terms to be within a designated distance apart without concern for order.

Examples:

university AROUND(6) knoxville - returns results where the terms university and knoxville are within 6 words of each other, regardless of the order.

Results may include:

  • ...plays Vanderbilt University at Neyland Stadium in Knoxville...
  • ...Knoxville, Tennessee, which is home to the University of Tennessee...

international AROUND(7) ethics - returns results where the terms international and business are within 7 words of each other, regardless of the order.

Results may include:

  • ...international interest in global ethics
  • ...ethics in international relations...
  • Code of ethics describes the core values of the International...

Tip:

The only Proximity Operator that Google recognizes is AROUND.


Truncation / Wildcard

Truncation

Expands your search results by using symbols to represent a variety of word endings and spellings.

Example:

  • child* = child, children, childhood
  • univer* = universe, universal, university


Wildcards

Wildcards are similar to truncation, but they can be used as a substitute for a missing letter(s), word, or phrase.

Wildcards can be placed anywhere in the word/phrase; however, most databases don't allow it to be used as the first character in a word.

Example:

  • hea*one = headstone, headphone, hearthstone
  • library * degree = library science degree, library certificate and degree, library paraprofessional degree
  • hallowed hill * shining bright = ...hallowed hill in Tennessee like beacon shining bright... (from On a Hallowed Hill - UTK Alma Mater)


Common Truncation & Wildcard Symbols

Some common truncation and wildcard symbols include Asterisk ( * ), Exclamation Mark ( ! ), Question Mark ( ? ), and Pound Symbol / Hashtag ( # ).

Tip:

Each database uses its own truncation and wildcard symbols and rules. To find more about each database's rules, access the database and locate its search help tips page - often labeled Help, Search Tips, or something similar.


Tip:

Google uses the Asterisk ( * ) as its wildcard symbol.


Advanced Operators

Advanced Search Operators

Advanced search operators allow you to narrow your results by focusing only on a specific type of result.


List of Operators along with usage and examples.

Notice that there are no spaces immediately following any of the operators and the query.

site:

Limits your search to a specific web address or type of domain.

site:utk.edu "clarence brown theater" - limits search to utk.edu sites

site:.edu "evaluating sources" - limits search to those found on .edu sites

filetype:

Returns only a specific type of file. Examples include PDFs, Word Documents, Excel Spreadsheets, etc.

filetype:pdf "google search tips" - returns PDFs that include the phrase "google search tips"

filetype:xlsx "calendar templates" - returns Microsoft Excel calendar templates

See the page File Types Indexable by Google for a full list of available types.

define:

Returns a definition.

define:didactic - returns a definition of the word didactic

intext: or allintext:

Searches only the BODY of the text on a site for a word (or group of words if in quotations) OR searches only the BODY of the text on a site for all words following allintext: (like using multiple intext: operators). Non-body text (links, titles, URLs, etc) will be excluded from the search.

intext:"bluetick coonhound mascot" - returns results with the terms bluetick, coonhound, and mascot somewhere in the body of the page's text

allintext:bluetick coonhound mascot - returns results with the terms bluetick, coonhound, and mascot somewhere in the body of the page's text

"university of tennessee mascot" intext:2019 - returns pages containing university of tennessee anywhere, but 2019 somewhere in the text of the page's body

intitle: or allintitle:

Searches only the TITLE of a page for a word (or group of words if in quotations) OR searches only the TITLE of a page for all words following allintitle: (like using multiple intitle: operators). Non-title text (body text, links, URLs, etc) will be excluded from the search.

intitle:"academic databases" - returns results with the terms academic and databases somewhere in the page's title

allintitle:academic databases - returns results with the terms academic and databases somewhere in the page's title

psycinfo intitle:cognition​ - returns results with the academic database psycinfo anywhere, but cognition somewhere in the page's title

inurl: or allinurl:

Searches only the URL of a page for a word (or group of words if in quotations) OR searches only the URL of a page for all words following allinurl: (like using multiple inurl: operators). Non-title text (body text, titles, links, etc) will be excluded from the search.

inurl:"pendergrass library" - returns results with the terms pendergrass and library somewhere in the page's URL

strong>allinurl:pendergrass library - returns results with the terms pendergrass and library somewhere in the page's URL

pendergrass library inurl:media - returns results with pendergrass library anywhere, but media somewhere in the page's URL

related:

Returns sites that are related to the item in the search.

related:utk.edu - returns a list of sites related to UTK


Tip:

These operations are specific to Google and other non-academic search engines. These operations will not function within an academic database. However, similar operations are available using a Field/Subject Search, which is covered in another tab.


Field/Subject Searching

Each academic database that you use will have its own unique set of Field Codes that you can use to limit your search by Author, Subject, Title, Language, etc. In most databases, you can select from a list of these codes when creating your search, or you can use abbreviations of the codes in your search query. To find more about each database's set of field codes, access the database and locate the fields list or navigate to its help or tips page, which is often labeled Help, Search Tips, or something similar.

Most databases also allow you to select these field codes after you have completed your initial search. Look for a list of filters that include titles like Author, Subject, Keywords, Classification, Source Type, etc.

Tip:

It may be tempting to select the filtering option that limits your results to Full Text only; however, you might not always want to use that option. Why? After all, wouldn't you want to read the entire article? Well, just because a full text copy of an article is not available on the database you are searching doesn't mean you don't have access to it. Look for the Power T FindText button (shown below). This button will open the resource on the University Libraries' website with additional information about accessing a full text copy.

Power T Find Text button.


Tip:

Google does not use specific field and subject codes, but you can use Boolean operators to get similar results. For instance, if you wanted to learn how stress affects the body, you could enter a subject/field and stress (anatomy AND stress).


Combining Strategies

Try combining the other tips and tricks found in these tabs! Although the combinations are seemingly endless, you can find a few popular combinations below.

Example:

Exact Phrase, Nesting, and Boolean Operators

  • (athletics OR sports) AND (UTK OR "University of Tennessee Knoxville")
  • (cats OR felines) AND "large breed"


Example:

Exact Phrase, Boolean Operators, and Advanced Operators

  • site:utk.edu AND "course syllabi"
  • filetype:PDF AND "monopoly rules"


Example:

Exact Phrase, Nesting, Wildcard/Truncation, and Boolean Operators

  • ("university of tennessee" OR UTK) AND torch*
  • nasa AND (cosmos or "outer space") AND inter*


Tip:

Remember, search engines and individual databases all have their own unique set of rules. When combining search strategies, be sure to verify the strategy will work on the platform.